Immagine
 Trilingual World Observatory: italiano, english, română. GLOBAL NEWS & more... di Redazione
   
 
\\ Home Page : Articolo
The Objections to Religion. Has Religion Made Useful Contributions to Civilization? by Bertrand Russell. THIRD PART.
By Admin (from 03/09/2011 @ 14:00:55, in en - Science and Society, read 1413 times)

... CONTINUES.

Russell was a prominent anti-war activist; he championed free trade and anti-imperialism. Russell went to prison for his pacifism during World War I. Later, he campaigned against Adolf Hitler, then criticised Stalinist totalitarianism, attacked the United States of America's involvement in the Vietnam War, and was an outspoken proponent of nuclear disarmament. One of his last acts was to issue a statement which condemned Israeli aggression in the Middle East.
In 1950, Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought."

File:Bertrand Russell 1950.jpg

The Objections to Religion

The objections to religion are of two sorts -- intellectual and moral. The intellectual objection is that there is no reason to suppose any religion true; the moral objection is that religious precepts date from a time when men were more cruel than they are and therefore tend to perpetuate inhumanities which the moral conscience of the age would otherwise outgrow.

To take the intellectual objection first: there is a certain tendency in our practical age to consider that it does not much matter whether religious teaching is true or not, since the important question is whether it is useful. One question cannot, however, well be decided without the other. If we believe the Christian religion, our notions of what is good will be different from what they will be if we do not believe it. Therefore, to Christians, the effects of Christianity may seem good, while to unbelievers they may seem bad. Moreover, the attitude that one ought to believe such and such a proposition, independently of the question whether there is evidence in its favor, is an attitude which produces hostility to evidence and causes us to close our minds to every fact that does not suit our prejudices.

A certain kind of scientific candor is a very important quality, and it is one which can hardly exist in a man who imagines that there are things which it is his duty to believe. We cannot, therefore, really decide whether religion does good without investigating the question whether religion is true. To Christians, Mohammedans, and Jews the most fundamental question involved in the truth of religion is the existence of God. In the days when religion was still triumphant the word "God" had a perfectly definite meaning; but as a result of the onslaughts of the Rationalists the word has become paler and paler, until it is difficult to see what people mean when they assert that they believe in God. Let us take, for purposes of argument, Matthew Arnold's definition: "A power not ourselves that makes for righteousness." Perhaps we might make this even more vague and ask ourselves whether we have any evidence of purpose in this universe apart from the purposes of living beings on the surface of this planet.

The usual argument of religious people on this subject is roughly as follows: "I and my friends are persons of amazing intelligence and virtue. It is hardly conceivable that so much intelligence and virtue could have come about by chance. There must, therefore, be someone at least as intelligent and virtuous as we are who set the cosmic machinery in motion with a view to producing Us." I am sorry to say that I do not find this argument so impressive as it is found by those who use it. The universe is large; yet, if we are to believe Eddington, there are probably nowhere else in the universe beings as intelligent as men. If you consider the total amount of matter in the world and compare it with the amount forming the bodies of intelligent beings, you will see that the latter bears an almost infinitesimal proportion to the former. Consequently, even if it is enormously improbable that the laws of chance will produce an organism capable of intelligence out of a casual selection of atoms, it is nevertheless probable that there will be in the universe that very small number of such organisms that we do in fact find.

Then again, considered as the climax to such a vast process, we do not really seem to me sufficiently marvelous. Of course, I am aware that many divines are far more marvelous than I am, and that I cannot wholly appreciate merits so far transcending my own. Nevertheless, even after making allowances under this head, I cannot but think that Omnipotence operating through all eternity might have produced something better. And then we have to reflect that even this result is only a flash in the pan. The earth will not always remain habitable; the human race will die out, and if the cosmic process is to justify itself hereafter it will have to do so elsewhere than on the surface of our planet.. And even if this should occur, it must stop sooner or later. The second law of thermodynamics makes it scarcely possible to doubt that the universe is running down, and that ultimately nothing of the slightest interest will be possible anywhere. Of course, it is open to us to say that when that time comes God will wind up the machinery again; but if we do not say this, we can base our assertion only upon faith, not upon one shred of scientific evidence. So far as scientific evidence goes, the universe has crawled by slow stages to a somewhat pitiful result on this earth and is going to crawl by still more pitiful stages to a condition of universal death. If this is to be taken as evidence of a purpose, I can only say that the purpose is one that does not appeal to me. I see no reason, therefore, to believe in any sort of God, however vague and however attenuated. I leave on one side the old metaphysical arguments, since religious apologists themselves have thrown them over.

TO BE CONTINUED ...

Articolo Articolo  Storico Storico Stampa Stampa  Share
Cannabis seeds, Autoflowering seeds, Greenhouse, Sweet Seeds, Dutch Passion
comments powered by Disqus
 
Nessun commento trovato. No comments found. Nici un comentariu găsit.

Anti-Spam: dial the numbers CAPTCHA
Text (max 5000 characters)
Nome - Name - Nume
Link ( OPTIONAL - visible on the site - NOT a must )


Disclaimer
Tuo commento sarŕ visibile dopo la moderazione. - Your comment will be visible after the moderation. - Comentariul tău va fi vizibil după moderare.
Ci sono 1308 persone collegate

< maggio 2019 >
L
M
M
G
V
S
D
  
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
   
             

Titolo
en - Global Observatory (605)
en - Science and Society (594)
en - Video Alert (346)
it - Osservatorio Globale (503)
it - Scienze e Societa (555)
it - Video Alerta (132)
ro - Observator Global (399)
ro - Stiinta si Societate (467)
ro - TV Network (149)
z - Games Giochi Jocuri (68)

Catalogati per mese - Filed by month - Arhivate pe luni:

Gli interventi piů cliccati

Ultimi commenti - Last comments - Ultimele comentarii:
Hi, it's Nathan!Pretty much everyone is using voice search with their Siri/Google/Alexa to ask for services and products now, and next year, it'll be EVERYONE of your customers. Imagine what you are ...
15/01/2019 @ 17:58:25
By Nathan
Now Colorado is one love, I'm already packing suitcases;)
14/01/2018 @ 16:07:36
By Napasechnik
Nice read, I just passed this onto a friend who was doing some research on that. And he just bought me lunch since I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that Thank you for lunch! Whenever you ha...
21/11/2016 @ 09:41:39
By Anonimo


Titolo


TurismoAssociati.it uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on the internet (European Union User Consent Policy)

More info



Publishes and comments on leaked documents alleging government and corporate misconduct.



Trilingual World Observatory: italiano, english, romana. GLOBAL NEWS- If you want to make information and not suffer it, become a CITIZEN JOURNALIST.


TurismoAssociati.it & Facebook

notizie globali, global news, stiri globale, reti sociali, social networks, retele sociale


Atlas City Project 4 All Of Us Radio The Ecova Project Backyard AQUAPONICS - Bringing food production home EuropeanOrganizationforSustainability The New Z-Land Project Pangea Organization - United towards a sustainable future Resource Based Economy Foundation


TurismoAssociati. it FEED Reader


CURRENT MOON

Trilingual World Observatory: italiano, english, romana. GLOBAL NEWS- If you want to make information and not suffer it, become a CITIZEN JOURNALIST.



Prenotazioni hotel, voli, offerte viaggi e vacanze, case vacanze, voli low cost, noleggio auto, offerte speciali.



Latest NEWS @
www.TurismoAssociati.it

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma cured by CANNABIS. The video of Stan and Barb Rutner.

Dr. Joycelyn Elders, U.S. surgeon general: Myths About Medical Marijuana in The Providence Journal, 2004.

Marihuana vindeca CANCERUL: marturii despre uleiul de cocos si canabis.

Yahoo Incorporated Mail. My account recovery information is incorrect. The Password Helper says my password can't be reset online. "First time signing in here?" message.

All information in a video about Donatio Mortis Causa and The Venus Project

What is TOR browser?

'American Taliban' to be released from prison Thursday

Trump critic Avenatti indicted for ripping off Stormy Daniels, extorting Nike

Trump loses court round on Democratic lawmakers' demand that banks provide his business records

Renewed U.S.-China trade tensions push down Wall Street

Investors seek safety on threat of wider U.S.-China spat

Chip designer ARM halts work with Huawei after U.S. ban

Ultimele articole - Antena3.roLiviu Dragnea, dezvaluire-?oc: La Parchetul General exista o sesizare a SRI cum ca PSD vrea sa boicoteze referendumul

Mai mul?i membri ai unui clan din Capitala au fost ridica?i de Poli?ie, fiind acuza?i de lipsire de libertate în mod ilegal, viol ?i favorizarea infractorului. Au luat o minora cu forta, de pe strada, ?i...

Cutremur de 4 în România miercuri seara

O femeie din Bra?ov este acuzata ca ?i-a batut so?ul cu telecomanda. Reac?ia poli?i?tilor

Fenomen inedit la Alba Iulia. Curcubeu spectaculos format dupa o ploaie pe cerul orasului

Exclusiv. DNA cere redeschidere dosarului lui George Maior





22/05/2019 @ 22:56:38
script eseguito in 813 ms