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By Admins (from 17/02/2014 @ 09:05:25, in z - Games Giochi Jocuri, read 1473 times)

Click on a bomb to create a chain of explosions of the same color to score bonus points. Mind your time!

Flash Bombs: Click away in this chain reaction flash bombing puzzle!

Controls: Mouse

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By Admins (from 17/02/2014 @ 07:09:53, in en - Science and Society, read 1901 times)


Section 1: Choosing a space to grow

Choosing a space to grow indoors is just as important as choosing the proper space outdoors. Your garden should be located in an out of the way place (not the bedroom). Basements, attics, and closets are all great places. Once you have a few possibilities in mind make sure the have access to electrical outlets. Plan ahead for anything that might require a repairman to visit your house. If your garden is located in the same room as the furnace, and the furnace explodes, your in big trouble. Once the permanent garden location has been selected it is time to prepare it. (For the rest of this document I will assume you have chosen a closet as the grow space). Paint the walls flat white. Do not use tin foil because it can actually focus light like little laser beams and burn holes through the leaves. Next, cover the floor of the closet with plastic. This will help stop water damage to the floor.

Section 2: Containers

Your plants will need to be grown in some kind of container. Large plastic pots (like the ones bushes come in) work best. Fill the bottom inch with large gravel to help drainage. And the rest with high quality potting soil with some sand mixed in. Buckets can also be used but drill drainage holes in the bottom. If your containers previously held other plants then they must be sterilized with bleach or alcohol.

Section 3: Ligthing

Since there is no sun in your closet you will have to provide a sun loving plant like cannabis with alot of artificial light. There are three options available to the grower: fluorescent lights are cheap, efficient, and don't put out much heat. Metal halide, or MH bulbs, are more expensive but put out much more light than fluorescent. They also put out more heat so ventilation is needed. MH bulbs also require a separate ballast in order to work. High Pressure Sodium lamps, or HPS, put out as much light as MH lamps but with a little less heat. Ventilation and a separate ballast are also required (the ballast regulates the current to the lamps and provides sufficient voltage to start the lamps. Without a ballast to limit its current, a fluorescent lamp connected directly to a high voltage power source would rapidly and uncontrollably increase its current draw. Within a second the lamp would overheat and burn out).

Fluorescent lights

Fluorescent lights are the cheapest light to use. They run at about $2 a tube. They produce little heat so ventilation may not be needed unless the space is very small. The light spectrum put out by these lights is suitable for all stages of growing. Because fluorescents disperse light over a large area, they need to be kept within three inches (8 centimeters) of the tops for the plants to receive enough light. This means you will have to mount the lights in a way that the can be raised everyday.

Metal Halide Lights

Metal halide lamps put out the most light. They also produce a lot of heat. A strong fan is needed to keep room tempertures down. MH lamps put out light mostly in the blue spectrum. Blue light is used best by the plant during vegative growth. MH lights can also be used for flowering with no adverse effects. A separate ballast is required for these lights to work. They come in sizes from 40 to 1000W. One 1000W lamp will provide enough light in a closet to grow four plants.

High Pressure Sodium Lights

High pressure sodium lamps put out almost as much light as MH and with less heat. Good ventilation is still required though. HPS lamps produce light in mostly the red and orange end of the spectrum. The plants uses this light best when flowering. HPS lamps can also be used for vegative growth with little slow down in foliage production. HPS lamps require a separate ballast for operation.

Some growers switch between MH and HPS depending on what stage the plants are in. MH is used in vegative growth and then the light is swithched over to HPS once flowering begins. Most growers use fluorescents to start seedlings and root clones. The fluorescents are weaker than the MH and HPS lamps and therefore do not stress them too much. Choose whatever light is best suited for your situation. If your are growing in your attic go with MH or HPS. If your growing in the closet like us, then use fluorescents. (For the rest of this document I will assume the reader is using fluorescent lighting).

Section 4: Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis

There are other factors other than the obvious amount of light that reaches the plants that affect the rate of photosynthesis. These can be manipulated by the grower to achieve maximum speed of growth and larger yields in a shorter period of time.

Humidity

The humidity in the enviroment is the amount of water vapor present in the air. Most growers know that humidity in excess of 85% percent increases the probability of the appearance of bud mold. The humidity is also critical during germination when the seedlings are extremely fragile. Humidity should be kept over 80% at this stage in the plants life to prevent the soil from drying too fast. Experimentation has shown that a relative humidity of 65% to 80% increases growth rate. Below this level the plants develop extremely narrow and tissue paper thin leaves to try to prevent excess loss of water. Above 80% relative humidity the plant have trouble disposing of toxic chemicals through evaporation.

Temperature

Cannabis can survive tempertures from 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius) to over 100 degrees F (38 degrees Celsius). Cannabis will grow best with a temperture of 70 to 75 degrees F (21 degrees-24 degrees Celsius) day and night. Higher than 90 degrees F (32 degrees Celsius) the enzymes within the plant begin to breakdown and photosynthesis is affected. The same is true for low tempertures.

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide is a gas that is essential for the light reactions in all plants that carry on photosynthesis. CO2 is absorbed through the leafs stomates and is combined with water and light energy to form glucose (used by the plant as energy) and oxygen (which is released). Therefore supplementing CO2 to the existing amount in the air will speed up photosynthesis and therefore, growth will occur faster. Experimentation has also shown that CO2 can help cannabistoloerate higher tempertures (up to 95 degrees F) with little affect on the rate of photosynthesis.

Water

Although only a small portion of water absorbed by the plant is used in photosynthesis a shortage of water does affect the rate photosynthesis occurs. This happens because when the plant is low on water the stomates (In botany, a stoma, plural stomata, occasionally called a stomate, plural stomates: is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems and other organs that is used to control gas exchange) on the leaves close preventin the release of waste gases and other toxic chemicals. This closure will severely slow down or even stop photosynthesis from occuring.

Section 5: Sea of green

Sea of green, or SOG, is the theory of harvesting many small plants frequently, instead of large plants less frequently. In an SOG setup the closet is divided into two light tight spaces. In the top space the lights are permanently set on a 12/12 light/dark timer. On the bottom the lights are kept on for 18 hours per day. Flourescent lights are used throughout. The bottom shelf is used to start seedlings and root clones. The top shelf is used for flowering. Using this setup harvesting can take place once a month.

Section 6: Ventilation

Cannabis like all other plants puts out waste through the stomata on it's leaves. Outdoors wind, rain and sun are present to evaporate these toxins from the leaf surface. Indoors the grower must create an enviroment. The best way to do this is with a fan of some kind. If the grow room is large enough then an regular cooling fan can be placed inside and left on all the time. If you are running a small closet operation then just opening the door twice a day to look at them will create enough air movement for healthy growth. A fan controlled by a thermostat will also work well. These can be found at most electronics stores.

If a large number of plants are to be kept a dehumidifier may be needed. If humidity levels are too high then the chances of mold will dramaticly increase. A dehumidifier will cost a grower about $100 so it isn't really practical for the closet grower.

Section 7: C02 supplementation

Some growers add C02 to their grow rooms to increase growth rate. This has proved itself to be effective in many experiments. C02 supplementation also helps the plants withstand higher tempertures of up to 95 degrees (35 degrees C) without slowing down growth. There have been complaints however, that C02 supplementation during flowering reduces potency. Therefore, C02 should be stopped when the lights are turned to 12/12.

Section 8: Early sexing

Since you control the light cycle in an indoor operation it is easy to sex the plants early and eliminate all the males. Just turn the lights down to 12/12 when the plants are eight inches (20 centimeters) high. Use a magnifying glass to examine the flowers and eliminate all the males.

Male marijuana plant

FOR MORE INFORMATION, PLEASE READ THIS ARTICLE: Cannabis Male and Female Marijuana Plants. What's the Difference?

Section 9: Obtaining seed

If you do want to pollenate some females to produce seed for the next crop it can be done so that only a few buds are pollenated and the rest remain as sinsemilla (sinsemilla, plural sinsemillas: A technique of growing cannabis where only the female is allowed to blossom. Without pollen from the male plant, the female blossoms produce no seeds, forming large panicled flowers that have a high content of cannabinoids, found in THC). First collect pollen from a male. The male should show desirable characteristics, like fast growth, potency and resistence to pest and mold. To collect the pollen just shake the branches into a plactic bag. Black paper can also be used to collect pollen. Just lay it on the floor around the plant, in a few days the paper will have quite a bit of pollen on it. The pollen can be stored in film canisters until it is needed. When needed, use a paintbrush to brush on the pollen to the LOWER branches of the female. The best way to be sure that all the seeds are mature before harvest is to just never harvest the pollenated branches. Let them die naturally so you can be sure they produce viable seed.

Here is a female plant. Notice the white hairs.

Section 10: Harvesting and drying

When you want you plants to start flowering just turn the lights down to 12 hours light and 12 hours dark. Then be patient and wait for flowering to complete. It helps the drying process a little if you don't water the week before harvesting. When you cut the plants remove the large fan leaves and add them to your compost pile as they are not usable for smoking. Place the plants in shoe boxes or paper bags and stir them around daily. In about three weeks the buds should be totally dry and ready to smoke.

Source: WeedFarmer - Adnotations by www.TurismoAssociati.it/dBlog - For other information check GrowWeedEasy

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By Admins (from 16/02/2014 @ 09:09:17, in z - Games Giochi Jocuri, read 2126 times)

Each reversi piece has a black side and a white side. On your turn, you place one piece on the board with your colour facing up. You must place the piece so that an opponent's piece, or a row of opponent's pieces, is flanked by your pieces. All of the opponent's pieces between your pieces are then turned over to become your color. Aim of the game: The objective of the game is to own more pieces than your opponent when the game is over. The game is over when neither player has a move.

3D Reversi: Beat your opponent by converting all the Reversi pieces on the board into yours before the game ends.

Controls: Mouse.

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About 40% of HIV infections lead to some sort of brain impairment, such as HIV-1 associated cognitive impairment (HAND) and dementia, according to a team at the school’s Division of Experimental Medicine.

“HIV goes to the brain in an early stage during the HIV infection and causes mostly mild HAND disease,” explains Hava Avraham, Ph.D, who co-authored the new study.

“Although there are quite effective HIV drugs, standard antiretroviral therapy, to treat this stage, many of these drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore cannot really prevent the damage that HIV causes in the brain.”

But cannabinoids can cross the blood-brain barrier and have been shown to protect the brain in a variety of conditions.

In the latest study, published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, Dr. Avraham and her colleagues found that cannabinoids may also offer protection from a toxic protein created by the HIV virus, known as Gp120 protein.

“This molecule (Gp120) crosses the blood-brain barrier and causes a very toxic effect on the brain, especially on neuronal cells, which are very important for the functionality of the brain.”

She adds that a process called neurogenesis plays a key role in the development of the brain’s neurons, which are generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells.

Using a cannabinoid called AM2421, which acts only on the CB2 receptors of the brain (not CB1), the researchers were able to protect the progenitor and neural stem cells from doses of Gp120, which Dr. Avraham says had “very positive effects on stem cells surviving.”

Experiments in animal models revealed similar results.

“Based on these in vitro studies, we went and analyzed neurogenesis in vivo in the mice brain. The mice were either untreated or treated with AM2421. Then we checked different parameters of neurogenesis and we found very positive results (with AM2421).”

While the researchers focused mainly on the CB2-specific cannabinoid AM2421, Dr. Avraham says cannabinoids that act on CB1 receptors – which are responsible for the marijuana high – were also effective. But like many others, she believes the side effects of CB1 activity could pose a problem in clinical settings.

“We also saw in our in vitro data that CB1 agonists, that we used, also have protective effects. The problem is really whether you can treat patients with CB1 agonists (without) addiction and having some other very significant side effects.”

Dr. Avraham says a number of CB2-specific drugs have already been developed for treating other conditions, and believes that it could be quicker to have them approved for HIV-related impairments.

Interestingly, previous studies suggest that various cannabinoids in marijuana may have positive effects on neurogenesis as well.

Dr. Avraham also believes that her latest findings might have wider implications than HIV, but hopes that further research will be done in order to bring investigators closer to human trials.

The study was funded by the Department of Experimental Medicine at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Source: LeafScience.com

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Heightened pain in individuals who are stressed, anxious or depressed is widely recognized by scientists. While the link between mood and pain perception is poorly understood, genetic factors have long been thought to play a part.

Now researchers have connected a stress-prone genetic background with a dampened response of endocannabinoids – natural chemicals that act to decrease pain – in a region of the brain called the rostral ventromedial medulla. The region is known to play a role in regulating pain.

Dr David Finn, of the Galway Neuroscience Centre and the Centre for Pain Research at the National University of Ireland (NUI), shared his thoughts on the new findings in this press release.

“The link between emotionality and pain is fascinating and highly complex. This research suggests a key role for the brain’s endocannabinoid system in a genetic background prone to heighted stress or negative emotion.”

He adds that the findings could lead to new treatments of pain and stress-related psychiatric disorders.

The study, published online in the journal PAIN, pinpointed CB1 receptors in the rostral ventromedial medulla as a site of action for the brain’s cannabinoid painkillers. CB1 receptors are also activated by THC in marijuana and a responsible for the drug’s psychoactive effects.

Previous studies have also shown a pain-relieving effect of CB1 receptors in this region of the brain. However, Dr. Finn’s study was the first to link irregular endocannabinoid activity in the rostral ventromedial medulla to genetic stress factors.

The authors conclude that reversing the irregular activity may “represent a useful and novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of patients with pain that is exacerbated by negative affect or co-morbid with stress-related psychiatric disorders.”

The study received funding from the Science Foundation Ireland

Source: LeafScience.com

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Instead of wearing a mask every night, studies suggest a pill made from chemicals in marijuana could also do the trick.
Sleep scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have spent years studying dronabinol – an FDA-approved pill containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) – as a potential treatment for sleep apnea.

Earlier last year, they showed that it could significantly reduce the occurrence of apneas, or pauses in breathing, in a small group of patients – and without causing other sleep disruptions.

Research associate Michael Calik, PhD explains that the challenge has been finding a drug that can treat sleep apnea without creating new problems.

“Sleep apnea research has been going on for 30+ years. The main reason why we’ve always reached obstacles regarding finding a drug form to treat sleep apnea has been: when you try to treat sleep apnea, usually you will have other effects on sleep quality.”

However, scientists are keen on finding a treatment regimen that will be easier to follow than the current ‘gold standard’: a CPAP mask. Currently, there is no treatment for sleep apnea in drug form.

“Adherence to CPAP is bad. To pop a pill just before bed, the adherence would be a lot better and it could be a lot easier for people to stick on it. That’s the goal.”

Recently, Dr. Calik co-authored a study that identified how dronabinol works to reduce apneas during sleep, through its action on cannabinoid receptors in the peripheral nervous system. The findings were published this month in the journal Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology.

“What we found was a minimum of 100 ìg injections per nodose ganglia were able to totally attenuate or abolish apnea within rats.”

Dr. Calik says the findings add “proof that what we saw a couple years ago with systemic injections of dronabinol was happening extensively at the peripheral nervous system.”

Sleep apnea is thought to be caused by a loss of muscle tone in the upper airway during sleep, explains Dr. Calik. THC, on the other hand, seems to increase this tone.

While the only study in humans was a proof of concept trial, he notes that dronabinol has already been approved to treat other conditions.

“Dronabinol has been on the market for already two decades, if not more. It’s used to treat vomiting and nausea in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.”

Dr. Calik says the next step is to hopefully extend the results through a larger study and to figure out more precisely how cannabinoid mechanisms interact with the peripheral and central nervous systems when it comes to sleep apnea.

The research received funding from the National Institutes of Health

Source: LeafScience.com

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Most recognize medical marijuana to be helpful for cancer patients in some way or another.

Yet marijuana’s legal status has prevented researchers in many countries from providing thorough evidence. Instead, scientists are limited to studying the effects of chemicals isolated from marijuana (called cannabinoids), which misses the full picture.

Thankfully, cannabis research is taking off in Israel, where medical marijuana is legal.

Just last year, a study involving 200 cancer patients found medical marijuana use led to “significant improvements” across “all” cancer and cancer treatment-related symptoms.

Here’s a list of 10 ways that marijuana seemed to help these patients during their battle with cancer:

1. Nausea and Vomiting

Marijuana may be best known for its ability to reduce nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy.

It’s so effective that a pill form of THC (Marinol) has been approved by the FDA for treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting since 1985.

2. Weight Loss

Along with nausea, patients undergoing chemotherapy often find it hard to maintain normal weight. Thankfully, marijuana has been shown to not only relieve nausea, but stimulate appetite as well.

For patients with cancer, marijuana can help improve food intake and prevent unhealthy loss of weight.

3. Mood

Cancer patients often suffer from mood disorders such as depression.

While it’s no secret that marijuana makes users feel good, research seems to explain why. As many studies have found, chemicals in marijuana appear to have significant anti-anxiety and antidepressant effects.

4. Pain

Another well-known effect of marijuana is pain relief.

And while its benefits seem to span a range of chronic pain disorders, studies show that marijuana can help reduce pain in cancer as well.

5. Sleep

Patients with cancer often suffer from sleep problems, including difficulty falling asleep and maintaining sleep.

On the other hand, sleepiness is one of marijuana’s most commonly reported side effects. THC has also been shown to improve sleep in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

6. Fatigue

Cancer-related fatigue can also cause patients to feel sleepy during the day.

Interestingly, marijuana seems to help patients combat daytime fatigue, while at the same time helping patients get to sleep at night. It’s multi-faceted effect on sleep may depend on the strain of marijuana and the balance of cannabinoids that they contain.

7. Sexual Function

Sexual dysfunction is a common, yet lesser known effect of cancer and cancer therapies.

While findings are inconsistent, marijuana has a long history of use as an aphrodisiac, dating back at least 3,000 years to ancient India.

8. Constipation

Chemicals in marijuana help regulate the digestive system and have been suggested as a treatment for a wide range of bowel disorders.

While marijuana seems to help by reducing bowel movements in inflammatory bowel disorders, it appears to have an opposite effect in constipation.

9. Itching

Itching can be a side effect of various cancers as well as various cancer treatments.

While the underlying causes of itching in cancer patients vary, marijuana seems to help some patients deal with this irritating symptom.

10. Cancer

Perhaps the most promising (and controversial) benefit of marijuana in cancer is the treatment of cancer itself.

While preclinical studies have long supported the ability of marijuana to kill cancer cells and stop the disease from spreading, the medical community argues that human research is lacking.

Still, studies in cell culture and animal models continue to show evidence of a cancer-fighting effect. So much so that major cancer organizations – including the U.S National Cancer Institute and Cancer Research UK – have large sections of their website dedicated to the role of cannabis and cannabinoids in fighting cancer.

Dr. Sean McAllister, of the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, is hoping to start human trials involving cannabidiol (CBD) as a treatment for breast cancer. His research shows that CBD can fight breast cancer in cell cultures and rodent models.

Unfortunately, no timeline on human studies has been set.

Source: LeafScience.com

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The drug is made from purified cannabidiol (CBD) – a non-psychoactive compound in marijuana – and is being marketed under the name Epidiolex, reports O’Shaughnessy’s.

So far, the FDA has approved two Investigational New Drug studies of Epidiolex for pediatric epilepsy, which are being led by Orrin Devinsky, MD, at the NYU School of Medicine, and Roberta Cilio, MD, PhD, at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Each will involve 25 children with epilepsy, and other studies are awaiting approval.

If all goes as planned, GW Pharmaceuticals’ Chairman Geoffrey Guy, MD, expects more studies to begin within months.

“In the coming months, if the FDA is comfortable about how things are going, there will be a number of senior epileptologists in major university centers throughout the U.S., each treating a couple of dozen patients with various epilepsies.”

GW Pharmaceuticals is best known for its cannabis-based spray called Sativex, which is approved in over 20 countries for the treatment of multiple sclerosis symptoms.

However, the company has spent recent years developing a drug for epilepsy. Preclinical studies sponsored by the company show that CBD, along with a related cannabinoid called CBDV, have the potential to reduce epileptic seizures. Anecdotal reports also suggest that CBD-rich cannabis extracts could be effective in treating epilepsy in children.

Unlike Sativex, Epidiolex is a liquid medicine that can be administered with a syringe dropper. According to the company, the drug contains more than 98 percent CBD, along with trace amounts of other cannabinoids.

It is also THC-free, which will ensure that children are not getting high from the medicine.

Dr. Guy says if early results are positive, the FDA could speed up the clinical trial process

According to Dr. Guy, the FDA process came after parents of epileptic children began contacting the company in late 2012 hoping to obtain CBD. Since GW Pharmaceuticals was already working with the FDA on trials of Sativex, the company decided it made sense to seek research approval for Epidiolex.

Dr. Guy told O’Shaughnessy’s that he expects the trials to provide a better understanding of “what cannabidiol does in these different children groups, what benefit we can see, and how the results can best be measured.”

The clinical trial process will likely take a number of years to complete. However, Dr. Guy says if the drug shows promise in Phase I trials, the FDA could speed up the transition into Phase III.

GW Pharmaceuticals announced the start of clinical trials of the epilepsy drug in the UK.

Source: O'Shaughnessy's via LeafScience.com

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Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the major compounds found in marijuana, but lacks the high caused by THC. Previous studies suggest that it can be used to combat anxiety and other obsessive-compulsive behaviors.

While research has mostly involved simple animal models, a team led by Dr. Francisco Guimarães of the University of Sao Paulo’s School of Medicine decided to test cannabidiol in rats that were given mCPP – a drug that blocks the effects of traditional OCD treatments.

Interestingly, even at low doses, CBD was able to reverse the obsessive-compulsive behavior caused by mCPP. Published in the journal Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, the authors conclude that the study adds support to “a possible anti-compulsive effect of CBD.”

Serotonin levels were traditionally thought to play a dominant role in OCD. On the other hand, while researchers are still unsure of how CBD works to reduce obsessive-compulsive symptoms, a number of studies suggest that activation of CB1 receptors may be responsible.

Thus, the authors of the latest study say that both systems may interact to provide relief from the disorder.

“These results suggest that the serotonergic and cannabinoid systems interact to control repetitive behaviors, although the precise nature of this interaction is not clear.”

And it’s not just the CBD in marijuana that seems to help. In a study published in 2011, researchers were able to reduce obsessive-compulsive behavior in rats by treating them with a synthetic cannabinoid similar to THC.

Although human studies still need to be done, scientists believe that cannabinoids could be used to manage OCD in the future.

The study was published ahead of print and sources of funding were not reported

Source: LeafScience.com

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Joint mobilization is a common physiotherapy technique used to treat musculoskeletal pain and dysfunction, especially following surgery. It involves stimulating the joints through passive movements and can be applied to joints in areas such as the ankle or spine.

While the technique has been shown to reduce pain in clinical studies, scientists are still trying to figure out how it works.

Using mouse models of postoperative pain, a team from Brazil, led by Dr. Adair Santos of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, showed for the first time that naturally occurring cannabinoids are involved with the pain-relieving effects of joint mobilization. Their findings were published online in the journal Neuroscience.

“This study represents the first direct demonstration of the role of the endocannabinoid system on the antihyperalgesic effect of ankle joint mobilization.”

By blocking cannabinoid pathways (CB1 and CB2 receptors), the researchers found that the pain-relieving effects of joint mobilization could be reversed. However, pain relief seemed to last longer when the mice were treated with a drug that stopped the breakdown of the body’s own cannabinoids.

According to the authors, the findings are consistent with data from human subjects which show that joint mobilization increases blood levels of anandamide – a natural cannabinoid that mimics the activity of THC.

While more research is necessary, the authors conclude that drugs which inhibit the breakdown of cannabinoids like anandamide could be used to enhance the benefits of joint mobilization in the future.

The study received funding from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Fundação de de Amparo à Pesquisa e Inovação do Estado de Santa Catarina (FAPESC), and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Brazil

Source: LeafScience.com

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