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Di seguito tutti gli interventi pubblicati sul sito, in ordine cronologico.
By Admin (from 21/12/2010 @ 10:00:40, in ro - Stiinta si Societate, read 1514 times)

 Lumea terestra pare sa detina un bagaj de insusiri inepuizabil, uluitoare pentru noi. Mediul acvatic bate toate recordurile in acest sens, in special in zonele marine, desi, uneori, ochiul (in)discret al omului vrea sa arate ca nu-i scapa nimic. Cine priveste – fara a sti despre ce e vorba – banalul peste, in a carui gura deschisa se afla „durduliul” si aparent resemnatul mic crustaceu, va crede ca pestele tocmai isi inghite prada.

De fapt, victima e chiar el. Parazitul numit Cymothoa exigua se fixeaza solid in gura gazdei si ii devoreaza linistit limba, neputand fi eliminat. In asemenea conditii, pestele ar trebui sa moara, fara limba nemaiavand cum sa inghita. Totusi, la „locul faptei” se naste o simbioza bizara. Parazitul ia locul organului gustativ (pe care tot el l-a consumat) si astfel ajuta pestele sa traiasca aproape normal, in acelasi timp hranindu-se si el cu cate ceva din ceea ce-i trece prin gura victimei devenite un fel de coleg de masa.

Nu tot ce-am invatat cu totii la scoala este valabil in natura. Despre broaste, biologii afirma ca se inmultesc prin multe-multe oua depuse in apa. Exista totusi o specie care ii contrazice, pentru ca isi poarta puii in... stomac, pana la ecloziunea propriu-zisa. Broasca respectiva traieste in Australia si, dupa fecundare, inghite cele 20-25 de oua, tinandu-le astfel la loc sigur, pe parcursul celor sase-sapte saptamani, cat dureaza procesul intreg de metamorfoza al viitorilor pui. In toata aceasta perioada isi tine stomacul in time-out, pentru a nu-si digera progeniturile.

Odata sorocul implinit, mama isi regurgiteaza, practic, puii, avand o singura problema: din cauza marimii si a numarului lor, nasterea dureaza o zi si jumatate. Cercetatorii confirma din pacate un epilog dramatic. Doua specii de broaste australiene isi aduceau pe lume urmasii in acest fel, insa din motive necunoscute, dupa 1985 nu a mai fost observat nici un exemplar.

Doua vietati minuscule pot fi reperate traversand impreuna Pacificul, impresia vizuala fiind cea a unei inclestari pe viata si pe moarte. De fapt, o specie de meduza de talie mica reprezinta vehiculul ideal pentru larva langustei californiene, lunga de numai 2-3 centimetri. La asemenea dimensiuni, aceasta din urma trebuie sa parcurga sute si chiar mii de kilometri in ocean, performanta imposibila fara ajutorul dezinteresat al meduzei. „Autostopistul” actioneaza doar noaptea, ziua ascunzandu-se de pradatori.

La adapostul intunericului, se agata de corpul meduzei dotate cu propriul sistem de propulsie si astfel, dupa o calatorie incredibila ajunge in zona unde va trai ca adult.


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The recent post Mad about You distinguished two different kinds of jealousy. The simple variety occurs in all relationships. Absent chronic resentment, this minor form of jealousy motivates the partners to reconnect. The current post describes how to regulate complex jealousy, before it destroys your relationships and drives you crazy.

Simple Jealousy Can Get Complicated
Relationship dynamics can complicate even simple jealousy, especially when the parties are insensitive to each other's different personality traits and temperamental qualities. For instance, an introverted partner is likely to disagree with an extroverted partner's interpretation of "appropriate" interactions with the opposite sex. What is honest "friendliness" for one can seem "flirtatious" to the other. What sincerely feels like "consideration" to one: "You should show me respect," honestly feels like "control" or even "oppression" to the other - "You don't want me to be friendly! You don't want me to be who I am! You're trying to keep me down!"

This is still simple jealousy, without the paranoid or obsessional nuances of its darker cousin. The introverted partner is neither accusing the other of infidelity nor obsessing about the friendliness of the more sociable partner. It is really a classic temperamental error that occurs in most relationships: judging your partner by how you would react, even though your partner has a different temperament, different experiences, and different developmental and emotional history. Though we're all tempted to do this, it's really a form of narcissism - the way I would react is the standard for all decent people; so you have to conform to what I think is appropriate.

Reconciling disputes born of temperamental differences is the subject of another post. In short, it requires binocular vision - the ability to see your partner's perspective alongside your own, indeed, to see the world through his/her eyes at the same time you see it through your own. Binocular vision, perhaps the most important of relationship skills, makes the world seem richer and more dynamic. Failure of binocular vision creates a reactive narcissism (you're incapable of seeing your loved one apart from how you feel about him/her) and, of course, more jealousy.

Disarming Complex Jealousy

1. Don't trust obsessions. They greatly distort reality. If you can't stop thinking about your partner flirting with someone else, you must distrust the thought process. The longer obsessive thinking goes on, the more certain you become and the more likely you are wrong.

2. Regulate core hurts. The primary component of complex jealousy is self-diminishment - you feel unlovable and inadequate as an intimate partner. These "core hurts" give rise to the obsessions. If, in my heart, I don't believe that I am worthy of love, how can I believe someone who says she loves me? I will assume that she doesn't know the real me, or she wants something else (my money, house, car, or socks), or she wants someone else. Because I cannot possibly be enough for her, I will look for "clues" that she is seeking fulfillment somewhere else. Many studies show that whatever the brain looks for, it will find.

When attacked by the painful feeling of unworthiness, before it stimulates a cycle of obsessions and revenge motives, ask yourself out loud:

"What can I do to feel more lovable and adequate?"

Just uttering the words will make it clear that devaluing, belittling, hassling, or punishing your loved one is unlikely to make you feel like a lovable and adequate partner.

To feel worthy of love and adequate as an attachment figure, begin by trying as hard as you can to see the world through your partner's eyes and to feel what it's like in his/her shoes. Appreciate that he/she probably feels unlovable and inadequate as well. Think of what you can do to help the both of you feel more worthy of love.

3. Focus on compassion, not trust. If you have suffered from complex jealousy, you don't have the confidence to trust. Focus instead on compassion for yourself and your loved one. Compassion, an important component of your core values, is sympathy for core hurts, with a motivation to heal, improve, appreciate, connect, or protect. Trust will eventually return, after a long period of self-compassion and compassion for loved ones. But it will fall apart almost immediately if you try to trust without a great deal of sustained compassion.

4. Follow the self-correcting motivation of simple jealousy. Be more compassionate, supportive, cooperative, and loving. Be mindful of the assets your partner brings to the relationship. Think of what you can do at this moment to make your relationship stronger.

Over time, this determined effort to strengthen your relationship will alleviate much of complex jealousy. But if it has become a habit, i.e., a conditioned response to feeling inadequate or unlovable, you may need a course in core value and emotional reconditioning (CompassionPower) or focused psychotherapy to make significant changes.

Author: Steven Stosny - Source:

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- A -

ABASEMENT - the need to comply, surrender, confess, or atone.  A need to accept punishment.

ACTUS REUS - the actual criminal act.  A legal term referring to the actions behind the offense that must successfully be proven by the prosecution so that the defendant may be found guilty.  SEE "mens reus"

AGGRESSION - the goal directed behaviour of harming another living being.  The behaviour may be indirect (upset person may break a window rather then hit some one) or displaced to someone else (road rage). SEE "hostile aggression"

AGGRESSION MACHINE - the apparatus used to measure physical aggression in a laboratory

ANAL EROTICISM - erotic/sexual pleasure  from activities associated with stimulation of the anal region.  Studies have linked such eroticism to aggression towards the individual being penetrated.

ANGER - an emotional reaction elicited by a number of unique stimulus, including restraint, aggression, threat, attack, and frustration.  Anger is characterized by a strong autonomic nervous system response, particularly the sympathetic component.

ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY - a behavioral disorder characterized by a number of deviant acts, including delinquency, truancy, theft, promiscuity, vandalism, fighting, poor work record, impulsiveness, irrationality, reckless behavior, and aggressiveness.

ATAVISM (THEORY OF) - a classic theory of criminal behavior that has long been refuted.   The theory of atavism suggests that criminals are genetic throwbacks that react deviantly simply because their behavior matches those of our ancient ancestors.

AUTOEROTICISM - Sexual gratification or arousal in the absence of a partner.

AUTOMATISM - an act performed unconsciously.  Defendants have been found innocent due to an automatism defense (i.e., homicide while sleepwalking). 

- B -

BALLISTICS - ballistic experts focus on the functioning of firearms.  Via microscopic analysis they can match up bullets with a particular weapon.  They also provide key information about the projectiles path.

BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION - a common psychological treatment used in both clinical and forensic environments.  The changing of human behavior by the application of conditioning and/or other learning techniques.

BLANK LINEUP - in order to assess the accuracy of a witness police officers may present a police lineup that does not contain the suspect. 
BYSTANDER EFFECT - a scientifically proven finding that as the number of bystanders increases, the likelihood of a bystander helping someone in distress decreases.

- C -

CATHARSIS HYPOTHESIS - The theory that states that if angry persons can express aggression in a safe manner, they will be less likely to engage in harmful behaviour.  Has possible implications with offender treatment.

CASTRATION - the surgical removal of the testes or ovaries.  In the past was used as a treatment for male sex offenders.  The ethicity and validity of this approach has come into question.

CHILD MALTREATMENT/ABUSE - actions either physical or psychological that harm children.  Can be either a voluntary or involuntary action.

COGNITIVE DISSONANCE - the unpleasant state that may occur when an individual has inconsistencies between their attitudes or attitudes and behaviour.  May occur in offenders concerning their morality and behaviour.

COGNITIVE THEORY OF AGGRESSION - a fairly modern theory that suggests that aggression stems from complex interactions between cognition, affective states (emotion), and other additional components.

COMBAT FATIGUE - a traumatic neurosis characterized by the presence of somatic disturbances and anxiety reactions that have been brought on by extended exposure to combat.  To layman's it has been called 'shell shock'.

CONFLICT - an action taken to block or interfere with others' interests, because of the perception that ones opponent is doing the same, or that each others actions are incompatible.

CONFORMITY - social influence that causes and individual to change his/her attitudes/behaviour in order to conform to social norms.  A strong example of this is the soldiers actions in NAZI germany.

COMPOS MENTIS - to be competent, or not to be legally insane or mentally deficient.  In contrast to non compos mentis.

CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR PROFILING -  a criminal investigation technique in which crime scenes and additional evidence are analyzed in order to discern patterns in the offenders behaviour, with which a behavioural and physical description of the offender can be created.  Has also been called: "profiling", "offender profiling", "investigative profiling".

CRIMINAL TYPE - a category of individuals whom repeatedly engage in criminal and/or antisocial behavior.  They apparently have a constitutional tendency towards behaving in that direction.

CRIMINOLOGY - the scientific study of crime, criminals, and penology.  This science often considers both social and psychological aspects of criminality. 

- D -

DACTYLOSCOPY - this is the scientific analysis of fingerprints.  Fingerprint experts have been involved with law enforcement for almost a hundred years.  Recent advances in dactyloscopy have continued to make fingerprint analysis of key importance (i.e., new methods pull fingerprints off underwater surfaces, skin, etc.). 
DEADLINE TECHNIQUE - a technique used in many areas, in which the target is told that they have only a limited time to accept an offer.  Often used in criminal interrogations (i.e. "if you confess now the crown attorney will go easy on you").

DEFENSIVE WOUNDS - wounds commonly found on a victims arms, hands, or fingers sustained when the victim was trying to defend self from an assault.

DELINQUENT - a juvenile offender under the age of 18, or one who commits an offense that is not considered a serious crime.

DELINQUENCY - a minor offense against the criminal code, or the characteristic of being a habitual offender.

DEPERSONALIZATION - an offenders attempt to eliminate the identity of the victim so that they do not represent or resemble the person whom has caused their psychological distress.  Actions can range from covering the victims face with a towel or blanket up towards extreme battery.

DEVIANCE - behaviour, ideas, and attributes that are responded to negatively by others.  Going against the social norm, whether it is criminal (murder/rape), social (wearing red to a funeral), or physical (facial tattoo's, physical abnormality).  Deviance can change depending on the setting of the act/attribute (cursing with friends vs. in church), the age of the actor (baby soiling cloths vs. teenager), etc.

DEVIANT - one who acts defiantly, have socially deviant thoughts, or has socially abnormal attributes.  Even though a "hunchbacked person" is not necessarily bad, society tends to look at them negatively as "deviant" from the norm.

DIRECT AGGRESSION - an attack placed upon what the individual believes is the source of their frustration.  As opposed to Displaced Aggression

DISORGANIZED - An offender classification used in many criminal profiling systems.  Such an offender tends to carry out spontaneous and impulsive acts in a manner that is sloppy  and at high risk of leaving evidence.  Such offenders tend to know the victims (at least by sight), stick to their own geographical locations, and use a blitz like assault with a weapon of convenience.  Sexual acts often occur postmortem.  SEE 'organized'

DISPLACED AGGRESSION - an attack against a person/object that is not the original source of frustration.  This act will occur when the source of the frustration is either unavailable or is likely to retaliate.

DISTRAUGHT WITNESS - The distraught witness bears a great deal of emotional distress.  This distress is the direct result of either witnessing the crime or indirectly  from their relationship with the victim.

DRIVE THEORIES OF AGGRESSION - the theory suggesting that aggression is created by external conditions that arouse the motive to harm others.  See "frustration aggression hypothesis".

- E-

ECOMANIA - a pathological attitude direct towards one's family.  It is characterized by domineering behavior.  This attitude has implications in familial abuse.

EROTOMANIA (1)- a pathological exaggerated sexual interest.  In males this condition is satyriasis; in females, nymphomania.

EROTOMANIA (2)- an obsessive love by  an individual towards one of particularly high status (i.e. celebrities).  Subject often believes that the other person shares mutual feelings of love.  Efforts to contact the object of their obsession, along with stalking and surveillance, is common.

EUNUCH - a castrated male.

EXHIBITIONISM - a compulsion to expose parts of the body, most often the sex organs, for the purpose of sexual excitement. 

- F - 

FAMILICIDE - when an individual kills his/her spouse and one or more of his/her children

FEAR-INDUCED AGGRESSION - responses believed to be biologically programmed into us so that we act in an aggressive manner towards any form of forced confinement.

FETISHISM - a pathological condition in which sexual arousal and gratification is induced by the handling of objects or nonsexual parts of the body.

FLAGELLATION - the practice of submitting to whipping for sexual or penitential purposes.

FLAGELLOMANIA - sexual excitement aroused by whipping.

FOLIE A DEUX - the occurrence of psychosis in two persons who are closely associated to each other (i.e., husband and wife).

FORCED FANTASY - an emotional fantasy that is deliberately promoted by the therapist (analyst).  This procedure has been criticized for its ability to create false memories.

FORENSIC - "pertaining to the courts".

FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY - The forensic anthropologist examines the victims bones to determine a number of key facts.  Information such as gender, age, looks, previous trauma, and disease can all be found.  The forensic anthropologist is often of key relevance to the identification of remains.  They use a number of means, including molecular DNA analysis.

FORENSIC ARTIST - the forensic artist provides an elaborate sketch of the offender.  This process is undertaken via the information from an eyewitness.  Many investigators now use computer programs to develop offender renditions.

FORENSIC CHEMISTRY - the forensic chemist studies the molecular aspects of the crime scene.  They can match fibers, paint, and dyes to particular objects.  They will identify relevant chemicals and particles.

FORENSIC DENTISTRY - these experts serve a identification function.  Via the analysis of a corpses teeth and previous dental records they can make a positive identification.  They also will analyze bite patterns so that they can identify who was eating a particular meal or even who bit somebody.

FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY - the entomologist studies insects.  A number of pieces of key information can be discovered from this analysis.  The rate of body decay via insects can directly correlate to time of death.  The presence of certain insects can identify previous dump sites, etc.

FORENSIC GEOLOGY - the forensic geologist can determine where a person or object has been by analyzing soil samples.  Soil can be found on a pair of shoes, tire treads, or a body.  They can be matched up with common soil types to predict quite specifically where the object/person has been. 
FORENSIC LINGUISTICS - the forensic linguist analyses either the spoken or written word.  They can identify whether a message was presented by the same individual, what the individuals underlying intent is, the individuals educational and cultural background, as well as the presence of pathology.

FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY - see 'forensic dentistry'

FORENSIC PATHOLOGY - the forensic pathologist analyzes the remains of a body.  They attempt to determine the cause and time of death via autopsy. 
FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY - the crime scene photographer attempts to record every component of the crime scene via photograph.  They depict the scene from multiple angles, using multi-functional cameras, and through the consistent evaluation of size and distance.

FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGIST - a Ph.D. psychologist whom specializes in the realm of forensics.  The forensic psychologist may have either a Ph.D. in forensic psychology, clinical psychology with a forensic focus, or experimental psychology with a forensic focus.

FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY - the discipline of psychology that deals with the legal system, including the front end operations (police work, investigation), legal proceedings (expert witness, competency & psychological assessment, jury selection), and institutionalization (confinement, treatment, parole hearings).  Forensic psychologists may also be called on to: evaluate new laws and programs, assist in the assessment and hiring of new police officers, etc.

FORENSIC SCULPTORS - like the forensic artist, the sculptor attempts to create an image of either an offender or a victim.  The sculptor's goal is to create a three dimensional version of the image.

FORENSIC SEROLOGY - the serologist studies blood and other bodily fluids for identification purposes.  The serologist is often involved in DNA fingerprinting (the identification of an individual based on body cells).

FRAUDULENT WITNESS - While not having any first hand knowledge of the crime, the fraudulent witness is an active attention seeker whom comes forward to offer fraudulent evidence.

FROTTAGE - sexual gratification achieved by rubbing against the clothing of a member of the opposite sex in a crowd.

FRUSTRATION-AGRESSION HYPOTHESIS - the drive theory of aggression that suggests frustration builds and creates aggression (ex. road rage, person losing job & family becoming homicidal).

- G -

GROUP POLARIZATION - the tendency for a group to shift toward more extreme position then those that they initially held as a result of group discussion.  This has been seen in jury deliberations.

GROUPTHINK - tendency for highly cohesive groups to assume their decisions can't be wrong, that all members support their decision, and that information to the contrary shall be ignored.  (i.e. cult behaviour)

- H -

HOSTILE AGGRESSION - aggression with the prime objective to inflict harm onto a victim.

HOSTILE ATTRIBUTIONAL BIAS - a tendency for some people to perceive others' actions as the result of a hostile intent, when this is clearly not the case.  Occurs in a number of criminal personality types.

HOSTILE WITNESS - This witness is deliberately antagonistic and/or noncompliant.  Such an individual may invent facts in order to purposefully mislead the law.  The hostile witness may react this way for two reasons: (1) their relationship to the offender, or (2) a underlying animosity towards the law.

- I -

INGRATIATION - a technique used to obtain compliance by inducing someone to like you, then attempt to change their behaviours (i.e. cult behaviour, could be used with 'good cop' interrogations).

INTERMALE AGGRESSION - physical violence or submissive behavior displayed by males towards each other.

INSERTIONAL NECROPHILIA - as a substitute of sexual intercourse the offender inserts foreign objects into the victims orifice.  Common with disorganized offenders.  This should not be mistaken as a form of mutilation.

INSTINCT THEORY - aggression theory that suggests aggression stems from universal innate tendencies.  In other words aggression is born into all of us.

INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION - aggression with the goal not to harm but rather to attain some other goal (i.e. sport aggression).

INTIMIDATED WITNESS - This witness fears retaliation from the offender(s) involved or from the criminal element in general.  As a result, the intimidated witness is quite apprehensive.

INVENTIVE WITNESS - These witnesses typically embellish and create details when being interviewed.  This is likely due to an inability to differentiate between fantasy and reality.  They may also have esteem motives, in that they wish to appear important.

IRRITABLE AGGRESSION - aggression and rage directed towards an object when the aggressor is frustrated, hurt, deprived, or stressed.  As a result one may aggress towards objects as an acceptable outlet of the aggression.

- L -

LEADING QUESTIONS - questions asked during an investigation that are worded in such a manner that will suggest specific answers.  This sort of questioning should be avoided and may become inadmissible in a court case.

LEGAL AUTHORITARIANISM - a juror whom tends to assume the worst about an accused defendant, and is found more likely to convict.  See "leniency bias".

LENIENCY BIAS - a juror whom tends to make favorable assumptions regarding the accused.  See "legal authoritarianism". 
LONELINESS - an emotional state resulting from the desire for close relationships but being unable to attain them.  This is a common attribute of sex offenders.

- M -

MATERNAL AGGRESSION - aggressive behavior put forward by females (and most likely males as well) when an intruder is in the presence of ones children.

MAXIMIZATION - a questioning technique in which the interrogator exaggerates the strength of evidence gathered in order to elicit a confession.  See 'minimization'.

MENS REA - the legal terminology referring to a perpetrators criminal mind.  In order to be found guilty of a crime an individual must be proven to have acted within a criminal mind.

MICROEXPRESSIONS - a brief, incomplete, facial expression that occur on our faces very quickly after exposure to a stimulus.  It occurs before we can actively conceal them.  A trained observer may look for these to see what questions elicit certain responses during an interrogation or criminal trial.

MINIMIZATION - a questioning technique in which the interrogator plays down the evidence and the seriousness of the act, by providing an excuse for the act or shifting blame onto someone else (i.e. the victim).  See 'maximization'

MISSION ORIENTED - an offender typology.  The offender is directed by a self-imposed task without regard for the consequences of ones actions.  The offender is often unconcerned about escape or even survival once the offense has taken place.

MIXED CRIME SCENE - description for a crime scene the demonstrates the presence of both an organized and disorganized offender.  Can be caused by: multiple offenders, unanticipated events, youthfulness, substance abuse, and unexpected victim actions.

MODUS OPERANDI (MO) - The offenders actions during an offense.  This is variable behaviour that evolves over multiple acts due to offender sophistication and confident.

- N - 

NECROPHILIA - sexual gratification from intercourse with a deceased individual.  SEE 'insertional necrophelia'

NORMS - rules within a group (or society) that describe how its members should or should not behave.

- O -

OBEDIENCE - social influence in which one person obeys direct orders from another to perform some action.  High obedience levels were seen in nazi germany, in cults, and often in the childhood of psychopathic offenders.

ORGANIZED - offender typology characterized by a mobile (own transportation) offender who cons his victim into capture rather then using force.  Offender is often a stranger selected on the basis of specific criteria.  Use of restraints and weapons are preplanned, and rarely left behind.  The body is often transported to a novel dump site and concealed.  SEE 'disorganized'.

OVERKILL - injury and trauma that is excessive beyond that required to cause the death of the victim.

- P -

PERSONATION - An offenders ritualistic actions.  Seen with body positioning, mutilation, and other symbolic gestures.  This behaviour is only of significance to the offender.

PERSUASION - the effort to change someone's attitudes.

PREJUDICE - negative attitudes towards others of specific social groups.

PREDATORY AGGRESSION - our motivated attack behaviors.  This aggression is directed to natural prey and is deeply routed in our ancestors hunting behavior.  Today it can be seen in the behavior of normal individuals as hunting.

PROVOCATION - others actions that trigger aggression in the recipient because they are seen as stemming from malicious intent.

PSYCHOLOGICAL AUTOPSY - an investigative review and victimology interview procedure used to determine the victims psychological makeup.

PUNISHMENT - the use of an aversive consequence in order to decrease or eliminate certain behaviours.

- R -

REACTANCE - the negative reaction towards threats of personal freedom.

REALISTIC CONFLICT THEORY - the theory that prejudice stems from competition between groups over certain resources.

REPRESSION - the freudian defense mechanism by which the person attempts to lower anxiety by denial and forgetting.  The idea of this actually occurring in 'real life' has come under scientific scrutiny.

RELUCTANT WITNESS - Witness responds with reluctance due to a natural restraint that is a reflection of their personality.  This particular witness will be hesitant and reserved.  They will not find it easy to talk freely.  Others may feel that the act they have witnessed is "none of their business".

- S -

SELECTIVE RECALL - a phenomenon of extremely detailed memory recall when a suspect is asked to relate his whereabouts/actions during the offense.  This airtight and precise recall will not reflect similar recall of other time periods preceding or following the offense.

SEX RELATED AGGRESSION - aggressive behavior that is elicited by the same stimuli that elicits sexual behavior.  Any person who can evoke sexual desire can equally evoke aggression via jealousy, etc.

SEXUAL HARASSMENT - unwelcome sexual advances, requests, and conduct.

SEXUAL SADISM - an offender who obtains sexual gratification from the victims response to physical/psychological torture.

SIGNATURE - the repetitive ritualistic behaviour of a serial offender.  This is typically apparent at every crime scene and has little-to-nothing to do with the perpetration of the crime.

SOCIAL INFLUENCE - efforts by others to change ones attitudes, beliefs, or behaviours.

SOCIAL LEARNING VIEW OF AGGRESSION - view that aggression is learned through direct experiences and observations of others behaviours.

SOCIAL LEARNING VIEW OF PREJUDICE - view that prejudice is learned through direct experience, consistent with the manner other attitudes are learned.

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - the psychological discipline that seeks to understand the nature and causes of individual behaviour and thought within social situations.

STAGING - the alteration of a crime scene in order to redirect the investigation in a way away from offender (or at least what the offender thinks logically will do this).

STRESS - a response to physical or psychological events that are at the leased perceived by a person to cause harm either emotional or physically.

- T - 

TERRITORIAL AGGRESSION - threat or attack behavior displayed towards an invasion of ones territory or the submissive-retreat behavior displayed when confronted while intruding.

TYPE A BEHAVIOUR PATTERN - a pattern of behaviour consisting primarily of high levels of hostility and competitiveness.  This behaviour pattern is highly correlated to aggression.

- U - 

UNDOING - offender whom has a close association with their victim with symbolically try to undo the crime (i.e. wash the victim, place a pillow under their head).

- V -

VICTIMOLOGY - the complete history of the victim (i.e. personality, lifestyle, traits etc.)

VOIR DIRE - the legal term used to refer to jury selection.  During this process the judge and the attorneys can dismiss prospective jurors for both specific and unstated reasons.  Attorneys often examine the prospective jurors age, intelligence, gender, attentiveness, occupation, and open-mindedness. 

Written By Michael W. Decaire - Source:

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Incastonata in una corona di cime dolomitiche, la più famosa è il Campanile di Val Montanaja, Cimolais è Sede e cuore del Parco Dolomiti Friulane. Stradine e abitazioni di sassi sono testimoni di un mondo rurale semplice che ha saputo mantenere intatto un ambiente incontaminato. Si possono percorrere decine di chilometri di sentieri in mezzo alla natura, senza trovare traccia d'uomo, alla ricerca di endemismi tipici del luogo (Harenaria uteri, Campanula morettiana) ed animali (cervi, caprioli, camosci, marmotte, aquile e stambecchi).


Il Centro Visite situato sulla piazza del paese, facilmente agibile a tutti, da' ogni genere d'informazioni ai visitatori ed agli escursionisti, anche attraverso l'ausilio di una mostra permanente della flora, della fauna e della natura geologica del territorio; molto interessanti le visite guidate che il personale del Parco organizza per le scolaresche.


Attraverso la Val Cimoliana (accesso regolamentato nei mesi estivi), transitando per la Malga di pian Pagnon, si arriva dopo 14 km al rifugio Pordenone, che sorge "all'ombra" del Campanile di Val Montanaja, uno dei simboli dell'alpinismo internazionale; il rifugio è un punto di riferimento avanzato ed è dotato di camere, ristorante e sala per riunioni, visto che qui si svolgono anche corsi e incontri di studio di carattere teorico e pratico. Un esempio è il corso di alpinismo (un mese di teoria e pratica) che si svolge ogni anno.


"La Cimoliana", una gara podistica che si svolge ogni anno a luglio, offre la possibilità di ammirare le bellezze impervie di questa valle. I principali riferimenti alpinistici sono il Campanile di Val Montanaja (monolite di circa 300 metri che si erge nell'anfiteatro dei Monfalconi di Montanaja, scalato per la prima volta da austriaci nel 1902), il Monte Duranno, detto "piccolo Cervino" per l'evidente somiglianza con il celebre originale, e la Cima dei Preti. Le palestre di Roccia del Compol, composte da 5 falesie, e la molteplicità di percorsi, malghe e rifugi completano le esigenze di tutti gli appassionati escursionisti, che trovano molte aree attrezzate per il pic-nic.

Gli amanti del campeggio (regolamentato su tutto il territorio Comunale) trovano all'imbocco della Val Cimoliana una struttura con servizi per roulotte, camper e tende. Il Parco Fluviale posto sulla riva destra del Cimoliana, lungo la roggia per il tratto che dalla località "siegia" va fino al "Prè de Cecio", è attrezzato con giochi per bambini, servizi e grill, ideale per una giornata in compagnia.


Per gli amanti degli sport invernali, sono disponibili gli impianti di risalita in zona "Prada" (uno è per bambini) e le numerose piste da fondo per principianti e professionisti.


Per gli amanti dell'escursionismo in mountain-bike o per i salutisti, molte sono le opportunità che Cimolais offre. Tra queste da percorrere il sentiero vita denominato "Pista del Signour", che dal campo sportivo si snoda lungo la Tremenigia e sale immerso tra i boschi fino al Passo di S. Osvaldo.

Fonte: Comune di Cimolais/ Parco Dolomiti Friulane

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By Admin (from 22/12/2010 @ 12:00:21, in ro - Stiinta si Societate, read 2304 times)

 Evolutia fiintei umane, inceputa cu milioane de ani in urma, reprezinta unul dintre cele mai fascinante si in acelasi timp mai stranii evenimente petrecute pe planeta Pamant. Drumul de la maimuta care a luat prima unealta - un bat sau o piatra - si pana la actualul Homo Sapiens a cunoscut suisuri si coborasuri. Unele ramuri ale fiintelor antropoide s-au dezvoltat, altele - precum neanderthalienii - au disparut in negurile istoriei. Si totusi, desi in mare stim cursul acestei evolutii, exista inca numeroase „pete albe” si aici. Una dintre lacune a fost se pare, umpluta recent de descoperirea facuta pe o colina uitata de lume din Pakistan.

In cadrul a ceea ce se poate numi cu siguranta descoperirea secolului in materie de antropologie, cercetatorii pakistanezi si americani au scos la iveala urmele unor pasi umani datand de acum aproximativ 1 milion de ani. Imprimate pentru vesnicie in gresia de pe dealul Margalla, amprentele de talpi au apartinut unui barbat matur, ce cantarea circa 70 kilograme, dupa parerea specialistilor, avand o inaltime de circa 1,65 m - deci ceva mai mult decat se estimase pana acum pentru stramosii omenirii care au trait in aceasta perioada. Dr. Ahmad Hassan Dani de la Universitatea Quaid-i-Azam din Islamabad sustine ca descoperirea va scrie un nou capitol in istoria arheologiei, oferind informatii importante despre primii stramosi ai omenirii.

„Veriga-lipsa” dintre Ramapithecus si stramosii directi ai lui Homo Sapiens

Una dintre cele doua amprente este completa, perfect imprimata in gresie, cealalta fiind fragmentata, in sensul ca urma degetului mare si a unei parti din talpa lipsesc. Ceea ce a protejat urmele de talpi de intemperii, care cu siguranta le-ar fi distrus, in cursul sutelor de mii de ani scurse de cand fiinta hominida a trecut pe aici, a fost o uriasa piatra desprinsa din varful dealului, care le-a acoperit pana cand sapaturile arheologice le-au scos la iveala. Vestigiile se alatura fragmentelor de oseminte humanoide gasite in urma cu un deceniu la Dhudhumber si in situl de la Attock, nu departe de dealul Margalla, semn ca aici a existat, in urma cu aproape un milion de ani, o comunitate de stramosi ai omenirii, poate chiar primul satuc din istorie...

 Continuitatea acestei culturi protoumane este demonstrata de centrele de la Mehargath (asezare contemporana, spun arheologii, cu Ierihonul, considerat cel mai vechi oras din lume) si de cea mai avansata civilizatie a preistoriei, aparuta pe valea Indusului. De altfel, tot in nordul Pakistanului, pe colinele Siwalik, o expeditie britanica scotea la iveala, in ianuarie 1976, o mandibula completa de Ramapithecus, un indepartat stramos al omenirii.

Descoperirea demonstra ca Ramapithecus nu avea inca o arcada dentala parabolica, asemenea omului, ci in forma de „V”, ca la maimute. In schimb, spune dr. Dani, este foarte posibil ca barbatul care si-a lasat imprimate urmele in nisipul intarit de la Margalla, sa fi fost unul dintre primii stramosi autentici ai omenirii. Pakistanezii l-au denumit cu mandrie pe acest „Adam asiatic”, Punjabicus, dupa numele regiunii. „Probabil ca el a fost veriga lipsa dintre Ramapithecus si ceilalti stramosi ai omului modern”, crede savantul din Islamabad.


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By Admin (from 23/12/2010 @ 08:00:16, in en - Science and Society, read 1511 times)

Post image for Caffeine Makes Us Easier to Persuade


Image credit: illuminaut


Experiment finds caffeine drinkers more influenced by a persuasive message than a placebo group.

Eighty per cent of adults in the US and the UK are moderate users of the psychoactive drug, caffeine.

Of all the effects it has on our minds—enhanced attention, vigilance and cognition—perhaps least known is its tendency to make us more susceptible to persuasion.

This was demonstrated in a study by Pearl Martin and colleagues at the University of Queensland in Australia (Martin et al., 2005). In their experiment they tried to convince participants to change their minds about the controversial issue of voluntary euthanasia.

Participants were told that some in the university agreed that people should be allowed to end their own lives under certain circumstances, while others did not. In fact participants were chosen because they agreed that voluntary euthanasia should be legal and the experimenters wanted to see if they could be persuaded otherwise.

Attitude adjuster

Before the attempt to change their minds, half the participants were given moderate doses of caffeine, while the other half took a placebo. Both groups were double-blinded so that neither the researchers nor the participants knew who had taken what. Then they were given six stories to read which argued against euthanasia.

When asked afterwards for their attitude to voluntary euthanasia, those who had drunk caffeine were more influenced by the persuasive message than those who'd had the placebo.

On top of this, participants were asked about their attitude towards abortion which, the experimenters guessed, would be indirectly influenced, since someone who disapproves of euthanasia is also likely to disapprove of abortion. And this is exactly what they found. The persuasive message had spread to a related idea and the effect was strongest amongst those who had consumed caffeine.

Pay attention!

But why? What is it about caffeine that opens us up to persuasion?

The reason that a lot of persuasive messages pass us by is simply that we're often not paying much attention to them; our minds easily wander and we prefer not to think too hard unless it's unavoidable. By increasing our arousal, though, caffeine makes us process incoming messages more thoroughly, potentially leading to increased persuasion.

So watch out, all that coffee isn't just making you twitchy, it's also making you more susceptible to influence, even if only by enhancing your attention.


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By Admin (from 23/12/2010 @ 10:00:42, in it - Scienze e Societa, read 2622 times)

Attorno alle rive del lago di Carezza si trova la foresta demaniale del Latemar, dove le piante sono alte fino a 50 metri. Le migliori si sviluppano lentamente e regolarmente, per i pochi mesi dell’estate, formando in questo modo cerchi di accrescimento perfettamente uguali e poco distanziati tra loro.


Sono queste le rarissime piante dalle quali si ottiene il legno 'di risonanza', ottimale per la costruzione di strumenti musicali. La preziosa foresta è tutta da esplorare grazie ai sentieri che partono da Carezza e che, a loro volta, si immettono in un famoso tracciato: il n. 20, che conduce nel 'Labirinto', affascinante zona di bizzarri massi rievocata da Agatha Christie nel suo "Poirot e i quattro".


Uno ci va per far divertire i bambini, in questo labirinto in cui è impossibile perdersi, magari anche per sfuggire le orde barbariche di turisti chiassosi che si accalcano intorno al lago di Carezza, oppure semplicemente per curiosità, per vedere questi angusti passaggi sotto i ciclopici massi franati dal Latemar. Invero, il sentiero assomiglia ad un budello torto, con svolte improvvise, scenari che cambiano e piccoli gioielli di flora Dolomitica che si aggrappano al niente. «Che labirinto sarà mai, un labirinto in cui non ci si perde?» E così, con la stessa fatalità e casualità con la quale si è giunti in questo luogo, si scopre attoniti… di essersi persi! Persi in una fiaba, persi in una nuvola d’agosto, persi dentro i pensieri e dentro se stessi… comunque irrimediabilmente persi.


Ore di cammino: 3 – 4 ore

Dislivello in salita: 400 m

Dislivello in discesa: 400 m

Difficoltà: facile, ma talvolta con qualche difficoltà di orientamento

Percorso e segnaletica: Lago di Carezza – Mitterleger (1.839m) – Labirinto (sent. no. 20) – Geplänkwiese (1.790m) – sentiero 20 – sentiero 11 – Lago di Carezza (a scelta si può allungare il percorso fino al Passo di Costalunga)

Punti d‘appoggio: non ci sono ristori lungo il percorso

Accesso partenza: Parcheggio Lago di Carezza (1.520m) gestito dall’Azienda Provinciale Foreste e Demanio

Adatto in particolare a: famiglie con bambini scalmanati e amanti delle foreste misteriose d’alta quota

Numeri utili: Uff. Turismo di Nova Levante 0471-613126

Azienda Prov. Foreste e Demanio 0471-414870

Periodo consigliato: da metà giugno a fine settembre

Degno di nota lungo l‘itinerario: la foresta del Latemar è considerata una delle più belle foreste di abete rosso delle Alpi Orientali, con alberi maestosi e colonnari, noto per il cosiddetto “legno di risonanza”; scorci mozzafiato sui Campanili del Latemar e sul Catinaccio

Descrizione: Presso il margine ovest del Lago di Carezza si trova una strada forestale con segnavia no. 11 che entra nella foresta puntando direttamente alle pareti del Latemar. Seguendola si giunge ad un bivio. Entrambe le strade conducono al Mitterleger: a dx. per un percorso più lungo, a sx. più breve ma leggermente più ripido. Arrivati alla baita forestale del Mitterleger si trovano presto i cartelli segnavia no. 20 che conducono al Labirinto. Oltrepassando alcune quinte di larici si entra nella grande frana che forma il Labirinto, attraverso il quale si scende verso una conca che all’inizio dell’estate ospita uno stagno. La segnaletica da qui evidenzia le due opzioni: il ritorno al Lago di Carezza o il proseguimento verso il Passo di Costalunga.

Fonte: -

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By Admin (from 23/12/2010 @ 12:00:45, in ro - Stiinta si Societate, read 2447 times)

 Poate parea cel putin ciudat faptul ca unii oameni sustin, cu toata seriozitatea, ca lumea insufletita nu include doar entitatile la care simturile noastre pot percepe anumite forme de dinamism: evolutie, deplasare in spatiu, vointa etc. Pana si „imobilele” plante au fost considerate o vreme altceva decat fiinte, dar iata ca nu de foarte mult timp s-a demonstrat ca un element omniprezent in natura terestra, cum este apa, are atribute specifice viului. Se pare ca nu e absolut deloc aberant sa includem, in aceeasi categorie, chiar si pietrele. Indiferent ca le consideram pretioase ori nu.

Traim pe o fiinta!

Trebuie de fapt sa precizam ca le vom dezamagi intrucatva pe unele doamne seduse de magia cu totul speciala a bijuteriilor: nu despre asa ceva vom vorbi. Pe de alta parte, se cuvine sa aratam ca sintagme si expresii considerate axiomatice, referitoare la minerale - oricat de frumoase ar fi contextele metaforice in care au fost incluse - contin doze substantiale de erori. Ce inseamna „inima de piatra”?

Un suflet incapabil sa acceada la sentimente umane. Corect, dar aceasta nu presupune si existenta unor transformari subtile (si, de ce nu?, sublime) in materia minerala respectiva. Mai mult decat atat, mineralele insele pot influenta, in sensul determinarii unor schimbari de esenta, organismele apartinatoare de regnul animal si de cel vegetal. Asa cum am mai spus-o, Terra constituie realmente o fiinta vie (daca ne e ingaduit pleonasmul, uneori, necesar). Problematica e foarte complexa si nu asupra ei ne vom opri aici. Ce-ati zice insa daca vi s-ar spune de pilda despre apa - lichidul vital pentru noi si „stapanul” planetei - ca este „cel mai ciudat mineral al Terrei”, potrivit prof. dr. Tudor Opris.

Nu stiati ca...

„Daca ar fi sa ne conducem dupa regulile sistemului periodic al lui Mendeleev, apa ar fi trebuit sa fiarba la o temperatura cu 180sC mai scazuta (decat cea cunoscuta de noi din scoala, n.n.), adica la -80sC, o adevarata temperatura antarctica (...) A doua anomalie a apei o reprezinta punctul ei de inghet. Legea sistemului periodic arata ca apa trebuie sa se solidifice la 100sC sub zero. Dar ei nu-i pasa de aceasta legitate si ingheata la 0sC.

Pornindu-se de la un experiment simplu - unui lot de pui i s-a dat apa obisnuita si unui alt lot, zapada topita - s-a constatat, dupa un timp, un lucru uimitor: animalele care bausera apa de zapada topita au crescut mai mult decat cele care bausera apa obisnuita. Deci, apa obtinuta prin topirea zapezii poseda proprietati exceptionale. Cand este asimilata de un organism, structura sa, spre deosebire de cea a apei obisnuite, nu sufera nici o rearanjare a moleculelor si deci nu se consuma energie.”

Ciudatenii litice

Pretutindeni pe Pamant exista pietre carora li se atribuie calitati neobisnuite. Unele sunt considerate sacre, altele blestemate, se cunosc dintotdeauna si pietre tamaduitoare, fapt ce dovedeste ca, in „neinsufletirea” lor, acestea ascund totusi stranii mecanisme prin care actioneaza asupra fiintelor din preajma. Cu secole in urma, unele triburi din Siberia si din America Centrala foloseau ca medicamente prafuri obtinute din meteoriti pisati. Alte pietre se crede si azi ca au proprietati oculte, respingand energiile negative si animalele periculoase, dar si fiind de mare ajutor in profetii.

Faimoasa „piatra magica” de la Mecca este considerata sacra in lumea araba, o insusire bizara a sa fiind aceea ca nu se scufunda in apa. O simbolistica extrem de vasta leaga anumite pietre de numerologie, de partile corpului uman, de culori, de zodii etc. Vom mai aminti doar un aspect insolit: unele roci sunt... comestibile. Nu numai triburi considerate primitive se hranesc cu asemenea veritabile delicatese. Exista tari din Africa sau din Asia unde se vand in piete minerale „alimentare”, dar cazuri de geofagie s-au consemnat si in Germania, Rusia, SUA, iar in secolul al XVII-lea „nobilele doamne din Spania erau atat de ahtiate dupa pamantul gustos de Ertemoz, incat a trebuit sa se amestece statul si biserica, amenintandu-i cu pedepse grele pe «desfranati»”. (cf. prof. dr. T. Opris). Un alt posibil argument pentru faptul ca pietrele nu sunt simple obiecte lipsite de viata, ci insumeaza si calitati comparabile cu cele ale regnurilor animal si vegetal.


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By Admin (from 24/12/2010 @ 08:00:57, in en - Video Alert, read 2817 times)

Dr. Cox and a patient hug for a very long time. When the patient kisses him on the cheek, Dr. Cox stops the hug. J.D. walks in and it is revealed that the patient is Ben Sullivan, a good friend of Dr. Cox's. Ben has a nail shot straight through the hand stuck to a board and J.D. faints from all the blood. It turns out that Ben is Jordan's brother, but when she divorced Perry, Ben chose to like him more. Ben likes to take candid pictures of people, and Jordan doesn't like it. Turk is prepping for surgery but just as he is about to remove a testicle they notice the patient should be Jewish but isn't circumcised. Todd comes into the O.R. asking if there is a mix-up as their appendicitis patient doesn't have an appendix.


Jill Tracy is back at the hospital. She has been traveling since her last breakdown and she's engaged. This makes it easier for Elliot to mention that her vomiting and nausea is because she is pregnant. Jill is confused because she and her fiance haven't had sex yet. Jordan isn't happy that Ben is doing contractor work as he keeps on hurting himself. Dr. Cox and Ben want to go for a beer and they ask J.D. to come along, but as it turns out only as a driver.


Dr. Kelso makes it clear to Turk that accidents that nearly happened are not good for the hospital and the patient should never find out. Turk agrees to keep his mouth shut. Elliot races to Jill's room but Jill is already on the phone with her fiance explaining that she slept with other people. Elliot tells her there was a mix-up and she isn't actually pregnant. Playing pool at the bar, Perry notices that Ben's hand is still bleeding. Ben also says he cut himself shaving last week and it wouldn't stop bleeding. The two doctors notice the symptoms and take him back to the hospital. J.D.'s job is to get the test results back. When they finally come back, it turns out Ben has leukemia. He needs to bring the results to Ben and Perry but he thinks about how many mix-ups have happened in the hospital lately so he says they haven't come back yet. See the fantasies section of this article to see how this episode ends.

Read more:

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By Admin (from 24/12/2010 @ 10:00:35, in it - Scienze e Societa, read 2144 times)
Nel 1632 il Conte Vitaliano Borromeo iniziò la costruzione del monumentale palazzo barocco e della maestosa scenografia dei giardini che diedero fama all'Isola e che ancor oggi documentano gli splendori di un'epoca.
La dimora dei Borromeo offre ai visitatori un ambiente elegante e sontuoso che conserva inestimabili opere d'arte: arazzi, mobili,statue, dipinti, stucchi ma anche le curiose grotte a mosaico,luogo di frescura e di diletto. Terminata la visita al Palazzo, si accede ai giardini per una piacevole passeggiata. Questo singolare monumento fiorito sviluppato a terrazze ornate e sovrapposte, è un classico e inimitabile esempio di "giardino all'italiana" seicentesco. Fra piante esotiche e rare, la spettacolare fioritura è progettata per offrire colori e profumi da marzo a ottobre.
Il Palazzo
Affascinante il percorso all'interno del palazzo barocco: un continuo e ricco susseguirsi di sale arredate.
Tele di noti artisti tra i quali il pittore napoletano Luca Giordano (1632-1705), il toscano Francesco Zuccarelli (1702-1788) e il fiammingo Pieter Mulier detto il Tempesta (1637 ca.-1701), occupano le pareti di eleganti e raffinati ambienti insieme a mobili di gran pregio, marmi, stucchi neoclassici, sculture e arazzi di produzione fiamminga del XV secolo.
Di grande interesse storico sono la Sala della Musica dove, nell'aprile 1935, si svolse la Conferenza di Stresa tra Mussolini, Laval e Mac Donald che avrebbe dovuto garantire la pace europea e la Sala di Napoleone che qui soggiornò accompagnato da Giuseppina Beauharnais (1797).
Terminata la visita alla dimora, si accede in quello che è considerato il più splendido e grandioso esempio di giardino barocco all'italiana. Molte le specie vegetali anche di provenienza esotica, tra le quali si aggirano in libertà pavoni bianchi dall'incantevole piumaggio.
I Giardini
Splendido e grandioso giardino barocco all'italiana è uno degli esempi più noti e meglio conservati in Italia. Costruito in tempi diversi, è comunque un insieme coerente di forma piramidale che culmina nella grande statua del Liocorno cavalcato da Amore.
Articolato in dieci terrazze digradanti, è abbellito da vasche, fontane, prospettive architettoniche e una moltitudine di statue risalenti alla seconda metà del Seicento rappresentanti personificazioni di fiumi, stagioni e venti.
Molti di questi "ambienti" sono delimitati da muraglie e balaustre sulle quali ancor oggi si intuiscono i punti da cui sgorgavano zampilli, fontane, cascatelle e giochi d'acqua.
Il clima, particolarmente mite, ha permesso la crescita di una vegetazione ricca di varietà e specie che qui hanno trovato il loro habitat. Fra azalee e rododendri, spalliere di pompelmi e arance amare, orchidee e piante carnivore, spicca la sagoma di un grosso canforo di più di duecento anni. Le piante esotiche vengono riposte durante la stagione invernale nella serra ottocentesca, inserita nel percorso di visita. Le rifiniture ricorrenti da marzo a settembre non lasciano mai il giardino privo di fascino e di colore.
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