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Neuropathic and inflammatory pain


Nociception (pain perception) is a critical mechanism of the body self-defence, inducing to discontinue a stimuli potentially deteriorating.
When pain is experienced chronically,often as a consequence of a neural or metabolic dysfunction, as in the case of neuropathic pain (NP), it is fundamental to find agents able to target the pathways producing allodynia (sensation of pain evoked by a stimulus which would not, normally, produce it) and ultimately to eradicate them. [1]
 
It has been estimated that 7-8% of the entire population of Western Countries develops neuropathic pain, which is often caused by other pathologies (cancer, diabetes, Multiple Sclerosis, HIV or stroke, just to mention a few).[2]
Despite the aetiology of the disease is multifarious, it causes the nervous system to be hypersensitised due to prolonged impulses.
 
Neuropathic pain alone is a chronic debilitating disease that affects up to 4 million people just in Europe; given the poor outcome of the medicines currently in use for the management of symptoms, (gabapentin, opioids and tricyclic antidepressant mainly) many studies are focussed on this field of study. [3]


 
Why using cannabinoids?
Phytocannabinoids have been extensively used throughout history for various therapeutic purposes, particularly analgesic. However, the cannabinoid circuitry is relatively young, with only 20 years since its first characterization by the pioneering studies of Raphael Mechoulam, whose discoveries conveyed these chemicals from traditional home remedies to pharmacological investigation. [4]
 
Since the discovery of Cannabinoid receptors pain regulation became one of the main area of study. Compelling evidence has shown that cannabinoids decrease allodynia both thermal and mechanical, proving their role for treating neuropathic pain. [5]
 
Cannabinoids vs opioids
The main mediator of the antinociceptive effect is thought to
be the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. The benefit of targeting directly CB1 receptors is endorsed by their anatomical distribution in core pain centers of the brain (Periaqueductal grey-substantia gelatinosa-medulla oblongata-dorsal horn). [6]
 
 CB1 agonists (all the drugs that activate CB1 receptors, such as THC) prevent “wind-up” phenomenon in the dorsal horn (an exaggerated sensitization to pain leading to allodynia and hyperalgesia and hallmark of neuropathic pain). (Hyperalgesia =increased sensation to pain, usually due to damaged pain receptors and nerve terminals)
It is hence crucial to pinpoint that manipulating cannabinoid circuitry is more advantageous than targeting directly opioids for the treatment of neuropathic pain. [6, 7]
 
Moreover, the medicines that activate CB1 receptors maintain their efficacy, at the opposite of morphine, which is less potent over time (so that more doses are needed, and with it, an increase in side effects).
Importantly, the spontaneous discharge (which lead to pain sensation) has been located mainly in primary afferent myelinated A-fibres, which are rich in cannabinoid receptors rather than opioids. [8]
 
The current medications for treating pain are still mainly opioids, but only approximately 50% of the sufferers finds relief with the available cures, thus highlighting how the clinic would greatly benefit from drugs oriented on cannabinoids modulation. [2]

On the ring today...

Opioids are prescribed worldwide to deal with pain.
Only recently Sativex has been approved for treatment of pain in 2 Countries only! If you want to know more click here.
Here are some facts, all the side effects, both very common and rare for both medications.
Remember that researching cannabinoids medications does not necessarly mean using THC-based medications and lots of research is going through in this direction, making cannabinoid-based drugs even safer and non-psychoactive.

 

Side effects Cannabis Morphine
    blood pressure chages
    constriction of the pupil of the eye
    irregular heart rate
  increased heart rate erectile dysfunction
Cardiovascular redness of the eyes eye or eyesight problems
  vasodilatation/facial flush facialflushing
    irregular heart rate
    oedema of the extremities
    palpitations
     
  aids sleeping difficult sleeping
Circadian somnolence sleepiness
     
  aids gastrointestinal functions (diarrhea is rare) biliary problems
Gastrointestinal anti-emetic, can cause nausea when overdosed constipation
  eases cramps gastrointestinal problems
  abdominal pain can occur (rare) indigestion
    nausea
    vomiting
    stomachpain
     
    amenorrhoea
Hormonal   decreased libido
     
    allergic reactions
    anaphylactic reactions
Immunologic anti-inflamatory itching
    skin rash or rashes
    worsening of pancreatitis
    urticaria
     
Muscolar muscle relaxant abnormal muscle movement
  unsteadiness muscle twitching
     
    confusion
    drowsiness
    headaches
    loss of appetite
    thinking problems
    weakness
  confusion convulsions
  drowsiness dysphoria- euphoria
  increased appetite fainting
  weakness feeling agitated
Neurologic euphoria general feeling of being unwell
  sense of well-being hallucinations
  depersonalization mood changes
  hallucination physical dependence
  paranoid reaction psychological dependence
    vertigo
    withdrawal symptoms
     
    bronchospasm
Respiratory bronchodilator pulmonary oedema
    respiratory depression
     
    severe dry mouth
    sweating
Salivation dry mouth renal spasms
    urinary retention


List of references:

1. Scadding, J. (2003). Neuropathic Pain.ACNR. 3 (2), 8-14.
2. Mao, J., Price, D.D., Lu, J., Keniston, L., Mayer, D.J. (2000) Two distinctive antinociceptive systems in rats with pathological pain. Neurosci. Lett., 280, 13-16.
3. Selph, S Carson, S Fu, R et al. (2011). Drug Class Review Neuropathic Pain. Available: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov . Last accessed 4/3/13 .
4. British Medical Association (1997) Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. London, Harwood Academic Publishers
5. Fox, A., Kesingland, A., Gentrym C., McNair, K., Patel, S., Urban, L., James, I. (2001) The role of central and peripheral Cannabinoid 1 receptors in the antihyperalgesic activity of cannabinoids in a model of neuropathic pain. Pain, 92, 91-100.
6. Martin, B.R., Lichtman, A.H. (1998) Cannabinoid transmission and pain perception. Neurobiol.Dis., 5, 447-461.
7. Lichtman, A.H., Martin, B.R. (1991) Spinal and supraspinal components of cannabinoid-induced antinociception. J.Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 258, 517-523.

Author: Viola Brugnatelli, BSc Neuroscience - Source: Casey McClain at naturegoingsmart.com/

 

This is delicious, you must try it.

Ingredients:


Baking spray

2 sticks canna-butter, room temperature, or use less medicated butter and more without cannabis
2  & ˝ cups sugar, divided into 2 cups and ˝ cup
2 large eggs, lightly beaten
2 cups (1 pint) sour cream
1 tablespoon vanilla
2 cups all purpose flour
1 tablespoon baking powder
Ľ teaspoon salt
1 cup walnuts, chopped
1 cup chocolate chips
1 tablespoon cinnamon
˝ teaspoon ground cardamom

Directions:

One of the great edible pleasures in life is a moist piece of buttery cinnamon coffee cake with just the right amount of streusel and swirl; two easy baking steps to master. This cake has been present for every one of our News Year's Day breakfasts for over 14 years. It didn't always have a boatload of weed in it, as it does in this recipe, but when I thought of foods that would be perfect when medicated this came quickly to mind. It's
pretty easy to make.  Lots of butter, so a perfect recipe for a medicated make-over.  When cooking with marijuana, you need fat (butter, all cooking oils, milk products that are not non-fat) because the THC will cling to the fat when heated. So, for example, if you make hot cocoa, and you use non-fat milk, the potency will be radically different than if you used 2% or whole milk.

Back to the cake. There is something very comforting about a coffee cake. This one has a good amount of vanilla, chocolate chips and walnuts, and a tasty streusel topping that has a touch of cardamom and healthy dose of cinnamon.  It is super with a cup of coffee or tea, and is not half bad with a scoop of ice cream nested on the top. One of the local shops in my town does a cardamom ice cream that when placed on the top of a slice of this the cake causes great sighs, swoons and smiles due to the high level of deliciousness!

Heat oven to 325.

Spray a 9 x 13 inch baking pan.In a small bowl, mix 1/2 cup of the sugar with the walnuts, chocolate chips, cinnamon and cardamom. Set aside. In a large mixing bowl cream together the butter and 2 cups of sugar. Add eggs, blending well, then the sour cream and vanilla.Sift the flour, baking powder, and salt. Fold the dry ingredients into the creamed mixture, and beat until just blended.
Do not overbeat. Pour one-third of the batter into the prepared pan.
Sprinkle with half of the nut/chocolate mixture. Repeat. Then add remaining batter.Bake until the center of the cake is set, about 50-60 minutes.  A cake tester or toothpick inserted in the center should come out clean. Oven temps can vary quite a bit, so please check for doneness after 45 minutes, it's a bummer if this delicious cake is overcooked.

Check out the link below for some awesome information...

Source: CookingWithCannabis

 
By CannabisJosh (from 19/09/2014 @ 09:05:00, in en - Science and Society, read 986 times)

Makes six servings.

4 cups tart apples, pared, cored and sliced

2 tablespoons lemon juice

1/2 cup all-purpose flour

1/2 cup brown sugar

1/4 cup Canna Butter*

1/2 teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon cinnamon

Preheat oven to 375 degrees. Put the apples into a 9-inch pie pan or dish and add the lemon juice. In a large mixing bowl add the remaining ingredients and work the mixture with a pastry blender or your fingers. Lightly blend them so they do not become oily. Spread the crumbly mixture over the apples. Bake for about 30 minutes.

Serve hot.  Click the link below for more cool stuff...

Source: CookingWithCannabis

 
By CannabisJosh (from 21/09/2014 @ 09:03:07, in en - Science and Society, read 1021 times)

This recipe made last night a Saturday night to remember.
Turned out beautiful and talk about delicious, this recipe is highly recommended.

Marihuana Pizza

Delicious homemade pizza with a cannabis ghee based crust and topping.

Estimated Time: about 1 hour
Serves: Makes 2 Pizzas

Ingredients:

Dough:
3 1/2 cups all-purpose flour
1oz/28g yeast
1 tbsp granulated sugar
1 cup/8 fl oz warm water
1 tsp salt
2 tbsp melted cannabis ghee

Toppings:

4-5 tbsp melted cannabis ghee
2 cups grated cheese
1-2 cans chopped tomatoes
1 1/2tsp fresh oregano (or other spices and herbs)

other optional toppings: mushrooms, pepperoni, peppers, etc.

Instructions:

To make the dough add the flour, yeast, and sugar into a large bowl. Add water, and knead into dough. Cover with a cloth and leave in warm place to rise for 30 minutes. Add the salt and melted ghee to the dough and knead into a ball. Coat with flour. Saute the vegetable toppings in the cannabis ghee. (Don't over-do it!) Add tomatoes and oregano and allow to simmer until it has a sauce-like consistency. Roll dough into two circles. Add sauce, toppings and cheese. Bake for 10-15 minutes at 400°F

Enjoy

Click the link below for more great stuff...

Source: CookingWithCannabis

 
By CannabisJosh (from 23/09/2014 @ 05:03:22, in en - Science and Society, read 1253 times)

This recipe is kind of advanced but is definitely worth the extra effort.  Enjoy.

Ricotta Stuffed Mushrooms

These stuffed mushrooms are unique and offer up a tasty snack.

Ingredients:

8 large white mushrooms, stems removed
5 cloves of garlic, crushed
4 tablespoons partially skimmed ricotta cheese
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon cracked black pepper
1 tablespoon infused extra virgin olive CannaOil
4 tablespoons grated parmesan cheese

Directions:

Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Clean mushrooms, remove stems. Chop stems and any extra mushroom. Heat olive CannaOil in saute pan, add chopped stem and mushrooms. Halfway through cooking, add crushed garlic, salt and pepper. Remove from heat and allow cooling slightly in a small mixing bowl. Add ricotta and 2 tablespoons grated Parmesan. Fill caps with cheese mixture and place on a cookie sheet that has been sprayed with cooking spray. Sprinkle remaining Parmesan on top.Bake for about 15 minutes.

Source: CookingWithCannabis

 
By CannabisJosh (from 24/09/2014 @ 08:08:18, in en - Science and Society, read 992 times)

Football season is here and a good queso dip is required, enjoy...

1/4 cup CannaButter
2 tablespoons of flour
1 cup of CannaMilk
1 cup cheddar cheese, grated
1/2 cup pepper jack cheese, grated
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/4 Cannabis Salsa

Directions:

Melt the CannaButter in a saucepan on low heat. Add the flour to the melted CannaButter, stir until combined. Add the CannaMilk to the flour mixture, mix well. Add the cheddar cheese, pepper jack and salt to the mixture. Keep stirring on low heat until all of the cheese has melted. Transfer cheese sauce to a serving bowl. Serve with chips, pretzel chips etc.

Click the link below for a very special offer...

Source: CookingWithCannabis

 

Combine the two and i'm in heaven.
Marijuana Fudge is probably the best food in existence. Period.

Marijuana Fudge

Ingredients:

1 tablespoon of Vanilla
3 tablespoons of Cannabutter
1 teaspoon Cornstarch
2 ounces of Unsweetened Chocolate
2 cups of Sugar
3/4 cup of Heavy Cream

Method:

Step 1: Combine the milk, sugar, chocolate and cornstarch in a metal pan over medium heat.

Step 2: Stir until the mixture comes to 240 degrees and then immediately remove the heat. Use a candy thermometer.

Step 3: Melt the Cannabutter in a microwave and then add to the chocolate mixture, don't stir yet.

Step 4: Wait until the temperature drops until 110 degrees (use the candy thermometer) and then stir for 7 minutes or until it becomes hard to stir.

Step 5: Spread into a baking sheet and then place in the refrigerator to cool. Enjoy

Source: CookingWithCannabis

 
By CannabisJosh (from 30/09/2014 @ 09:09:07, in en - Science and Society, read 1003 times)

Who doesn't love peanut butter cookies?  That's right, nobody!  This is a great recipe for them, enjoy.


1/3 c. wheat flour
1/3 c. pot flour
1/2 tsp. baking soda
1/2 tsp. baking powder
1/8 tsp. salt
3 tbsp. shortening
1 tbsp. pot butter
4 tbsp. creamy low fat peanut butter
2 tsp. sugar
2 eggs, beaten

Preheat oven to 350

Mix and stir all ingredients except egg (add to bowl in order).

Add beaten egg and mix.

Drop by spoonfuls onto baking sheet.

Using fork dipped in flour, criss-cross the cookie balls.

Bake at 350 degrees for 10 minutes for light pans 8-9 minutes for dark pans.

Source: CookingWithCannabis

 
By CannabisJosh (from 01/10/2014 @ 04:02:43, in en - Science and Society, read 1154 times)

Ingredients:

1 package of instant lasagna
2 jars of pasta sauce or a large can of tomato sauce
1 bunch of fresh spinach, washed and chopped
2 carrots, peeled and shredded
1 large broccoli head, cut up into fine florets
1 large onion chopped
2 zucchini, shredded
1 cup shredded mozzarella
1 cup ricotta cheese
1 egg beaten
ľ cup of dried and grated cannabis bud
˝ cup of Parmesan cheese

Salt, pepper, oregano or any spices you like just for taste
(Optional: any other veggies you like, such as eggplant, cut up fine.)

Directions:

Preheat oven to 375°F. Lightly grease a 9x13 inch baking dish with olive oil.
In a warm skillet, fry the onion until golden with a little olive oil. Add tomato sauce. Set aside when warm.
Mix the ricotta, egg, mozzarella, spinach, and ganja. Add salt and pepper as desired.
Take the dish and spread the warm tomato sauce at the bottom.
*Ready to bake noodles tend to be dry, so they need a bit of extra moisture. Use the sauce liberally.
Add a layer of the lasagna noodles. Then, a layer of the cheese and ganja mixture, followed by a layer of the tomato sauce, veggies, lasagna noodles, and repeat until the layers reach the top. End with a lasagne noodle layer and top with Parmesan cheese.
Cover with aluminum foil and bake at 375°F for 45 minutes.
Remove foil and bake for 10 minutes more until cheese is golden.
Set aside to cool.

Source: CookingWithCannabis

 

Jens Waldmann is a dad, husband, and tattoo-artist. He's also a recently convicted felon. You see, Waldmann suffers from anxiety, insomnia and depression, which he's had a hard time dealing with. After many failed attempts of treatments, and hours of late-night researching online, he eventually turned to growing and smoking his own weed at home.

However, Sweden (where Waldmann lives) is pretty strict when it comes to drug policies. So after two years of regularly "self medicating," the police came knocking on his door and Waldmann was arrested, charged, and convicted for drug offences. He's now forced to go back to anxiety pills. Waldmann – who's allegedly been treating himself to be able to take care of his family – is now afraid he'll fall back into depression. So with the help of a pretty big group of friends supporting his cause, he's now trying to raise awareness around the possibilities of using weed as medicine. I caught up with him to see how that's going.

VICE: I've heard that you've been afraid to be labelled by society as a junkie, and not by a court as a criminal. It seems as if you've managed to gain a lot of support from your local community.
Jens Waldmann: Yeah. I've got a lot of support from people because of this. I knew beforehand that these were issues in the community, and that people wanted someone who can speak up about it. I felt the same way when I sat at home, scared of the police. When the police came, I told my wife that it's time to do something.

Sixty people showed up at your trial. Are you starting a movement now?
Yes, we joined forces to reach out to the public. What we're doing is that we're trying to get the truth out about cannabis – both pros and cons. Not the propaganda politicians have been scattering around them for the last 40 years with their war on drugs.

The lawsuit against you is pretty political. You have a Facebook page and for some reason I get the connotations to a political campaign.
Absolutely! We're using my situation to draw attention to this issue, to bring out a discussion. Most who are put in District Court are ashamed, which I probably would have been, too, if I had been drinking and driving, or punched someone. But I'm not ashamed! I don't feel like I've done anything wrong at all. It's society who should be ashamed of itself. I haven't raped a child or hurt someone for my pleasure. I've grown a natural flower for medicine. I don't get it. I really don't get what the problem is to be honest. All I've done is a favour to society by taking myself out of hospital care.

The judge called for a prison sentence, but you got 75 hours of community service. Wouldn't It have been better with a prison sentence to get a more clear message out?
Of course. In that case my family and my business would have been destroyed. It would have given a more drastic picture of how flipped out all this is. If I did the same thing again, I would definitely get a prison sentence immediately. Maybe the next guy doing this will have a criminal record unlike me and end up in prison. The sad thing is that the guy probably won't be more evil than I am. We're people who just wants to feel good, and I don't get why we should be stepped on because of it.

Do you think your trial will have an impact on Sweden's conservative view on medical cannabis?
A lot of people will hopefully open their eyes. We already have meds containing stigmatic drugs, like amphetamine that we give to our kids with ADHD. We give out morphine pills to the left and the right. This is a much easier drug to make meds out of, and a lot less dangerous than the other stuff we give people.

Thanks, Jens.

Author: Rasmus Foltmar Elfton - Source: Vice

UPDATE FROM TURISMO ASSOCIATI:

Maria Larsson: We are a community in Sweden supporting him.
The group "Avkriminalisera Cannabis " (decriminalise cannabis) has 15000 members which support him in his struggles (
LINK here for the group, and LINK here for the Community). Also the organization "Cannalisörerna" is involved (LINK here).

 
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Now Colorado is one love, I'm already packing suitcases;)
14/01/2018 @ 16:07:36
By Napasechnik
Nice read, I just passed this onto a friend who was doing some research on that. And he just bought me lunch since I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that Thank you for lunch! Whenever you ha...
21/11/2016 @ 09:41:39
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I am not sure where you are getting your info, but great topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more. Thanks for fantastic information I was looking for this info for my...
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