We didn’t want to write about it. Seriously, we didn’t. Sure, Michael Phelps has digital technology, the 24-hour news cycle and precision blown glass to blame for his plight but we’re better than that.* But when US Swimming went and suspended Phelps for two months for, ultimately, acting his age, we felt compelled to write something. The 'Science' part of Popular Science restricts us from condemning the insanity of the punishment (note, however, they did nothing following his 2003 DUI). So below we offer an introductory, though hardly comprehensive, summary of marijuana and its (non)role as a performance-enhancing drug.
We should start by noting that US Swimming has made it quite clear that the ban of Phelps has nothing do with performance enhancement (not much to enhance) and everything to do with serving as the morality police.
“This is not a situation where any anti-doping rule was violated, but we decided to send a strong message to Michael because he disappointed so many people, particularly the hundreds of thousands of USA Swimming member kids who look up to him as a role model and a hero,” the Colorado Springs-based federation said in a statement.
But, that doesn’t stop us from asking why the drug is banned in sports in the first place. It’s a question English sports minister Richard Caborn , Spanish Athletics Federation President Jose Maria Odriozola and New Zealand Sports Drug Agency executive director Graeme Steel all asked several years ago. Caborn said the World Anti-Doping Agency should not be “in the business of policing society.” WADA’s science director, Dr. Olivier Rabin, added his thoughts during the discussion, “Our mandate is to fight doping in sport. We don’t go beyond that mandate and this has nothing to do with the social aspects of these drugs.”
According to WADA, prohibition of a substance is based on three questions: does it enhance performance, is it dangerous for the athlete, and is it against the ‘spirit of sport’? If the answer is yes to two of the questions, the substance is banned. Conceding that cannabinoids are dangerous to the athlete (smoke inhalation can never be good), the debate rests on performance enhancement and spirit of sport questions. Given Rabin’s comments we figured data must exist showing the power of pot in sports.
An oddity worth noting is that marijuana is only sometimes banned. During competition, athletes testing positive will suffer punishment but testing positive out of competition (during training) is okay. The rationale for this depends on whom you talk to. Some argue the ability of cannabinoids to calm nerves, thus enhancing performance, only works directly before a competition (unless you found some especially sticky stuff). Others argue it’s an example of WADA waffling on how marijuana aligns with the ‘spirit of sport’.
“In the case of marijuana, it’s a call by WADA to balance the strong views by many that it shouldn’t be on the list at all and say that their primary concern is limiting it during competition,” said Steel. “What athletes do during their own personal time is not WADA’s business. That’s my own personal opinion and not speaking officially on behalf of WADA.”
Cannabinoids are not the only substance on the ‘sometimes prohibited' list. Most stimulants with short-term effects, along with narcotics for pain relief, can be used freely outside of competition. These substances clearly can benefit performance; again, suggesting marijuana has similar capability.
So back to the core question. Can marijuana enhance performance? A cursory search of PubMed found a surprising lack of quality research on whether smoking a joint could help athletes win anything other than an eating contest. We doubt scientists would have a hard time recruiting volunteers so logic might suggest that most scientists just don’t buy for a second that inhaling Cheetos is a desirable side-effect for elite athletes. WADA provided several references for this piece that focused more generally on the pharmacology of marijuana but offered little data on actual physical performance.
Saugy, et al, published a literature review of the topic in the 2006 British Journal of Sports Medicine. Saugy first references US data suggesting that 16 percent of US adults aged 18-25 reported cannabis use in the past month (again, sample size should not be a problem for any future research). The paper refers to cannabis as an ‘ergolytic’ drug, which impairs performance, rather than a ‘ergogenic’ drug that would enhance it. A referenced study showed that 12 healthy adults cycled to exhaustion in less time after smoking 10 minutes earlier. Other studies have shown that THC (the ingredient that gets you high) increases heart rate and blood pressure while decreasing cardiac output and psychomotor activity.
A detailing of the pharmacological effects of cannabis published in the British Journal of Psychiatry by Ashton, does note that colors might seem brighter. While that might help a tennis player see the balls, these additional side effects are a little less desirable when returning a 120-mph serve.
“Spatial perception is distorted and time perception is impaired so that perceived time goes faster than clock time. Hallucinations may occur with high doses.”
Most theories on potential benefits from marijuana surround its ability to alleviate stress and relax. A study of French sport students showed that "good sleep” was one reason listed for marijuana usage and that participants in extreme sports—those where competition included elevated levels of physical dangerous—reported higher rates of usage.
A WADA spokesman added in an e-mail response that, “Research showed that cannabinoids can allow athletes to better focus and diminish stress.”
And according to Saugy, “it can have a euphoric effect, reducing anxiety and increasing the sociability of a player who may be particularly nervous before an important match.”
Steel has heard those arguments but notes that in his experience in New Zealand, it is simply not the case. More than 60 percent of the positive tests in his country are for marijuana and not once has a tribunal found that the drug was taken for performance enhancing capability.
Rabin had previously disputed that contention noting that a reduction “in the sense of fear or apprehension” can classify cannabinoids as performance enhancing in certain sports. He noted that athletes have testified to such after being caught.
But, if the issue truly was about some archer wanting to smoke a joint to help him hit the bull’s-eye, why not ban it in only that sport? WADA has precedence and existing protocol for such a move. Alcohol for examples is only banned in a handful of sports (motorcycling, powerboating, etc.). Steel doesn’t expect that change to occur.
“Yes, it would be an option, but there are some strong entrenched views that it has no place in and around sports so that view is unlikely to prevail,” said Steel. “Some strong lobbying groups think it shouldn’t be there whether it effects performance or not.”
Apparently suggestions otherwise would just be blowing the proverbial smoke.
*Though we can't help but note how potent is the irony of a man with scientifically-inexplicably large lungs inhaling smoke from an oversized bong.
Source: popsci.com - Author: Brett Zarda (article from 02.09.2009)
Il più antico "coltellino svizzero" della Storia è stato rinvenuto non lontano dal Lago Turkana, nel nordovest del Kenya.
Si tratta in realtà di una pietra affilata lunga 23 centimetri, utilizzata per un'ampia varietà di mansioni - dal taglio del legno a quello della carne - talmente versatile da meritarsi il soprannome del noto coltello portatile multiuso.
Secondo gli esperti a fabbricarla sarebbero stati nostri antenati appartenenti alla specie Homo erectus 1,76 milioni di anni fa.
La scoperta, ripresa immediatamente dalla BBC inglese è stata inizialmente pubblicata sul giornale Nature.
Luis Moreno Ocampo said he sent a letter to the head of the National Transitional Council asking what the new government's plans are to investigate alleged war crimes by all parties, including the rebels.
The uprising against Gaddafi's 42-year rule erupted in February, quickly escalated into civil war, and ended in October with Gaddafi's capture and death in unclear circumstances.
Witness accounts and video taken of the deposed dictator after his capture by rebel fighters show that he was beaten and abused by his captors, and there were strong indications he was killed in custody.
Mr Moreno Ocampo said.: 'The death of Muammar Gaddafi is one of the issues to be clarified - what happened - because there are serious suspicions that it was a war crime.'
He said what the ICC does on Gaddafi's death and other war crimes will depend on what Libya's interim government does because under the Rome statute that established the war crimes tribunal, the ICC only steps in if national authorities are unwilling or unable to act.
Mr Moreno Ocampo said his office is working closely with Libyan authorities not only on Gaddafi's case but on those of his son, Saif al-Islam, and former intelligence chief, Abdullah al-Senoussi, who were captured and face ICC charges.
Libya's new leaders have said they will try al-Islam at home even though they have yet to set up a strong court system. The ICC wants to be certain the government will be capable of putting on a fair trial for al-Islam and al-Senoussi.
Mr Moreno Ocampo said that the judges at the ICC have asked the National Transitional Council to inform them of their plans before January 10. He said if the government challenges the ICC's jurisdiction, it will be up to the judges to decide where the two accused will be tried.
In the meantime, he said, his office is continuing its investigation.
'We are sure there were massive rapes, quite sure,' Mr Moreno Ocampo said. 'We're trying to define who ordered them.' The UN Security Council referred incidents stemming from the Libyan uprising to the ICC and Mr Moreno Ocampo said he promised the council that he would present his strategy for the continuing investigation of possible war crimes in his next report in May.
After al-Islam's arrest, Mr Moreno Ocampo flew to the Libyan capital late last month and met government officials. He said the officials offered him the opportunity to meet al-Islam. But he said he declined because Gaddafi's son would have needed to have a lawyer present and he had not asked to see the prosecutor.
Mr Moreno Ocampo said the Libyan authorities told him it was 'very important' to prosecute al-Islam themselves for two reasons - he is 'the face of the old regime' and 'they would like to show they can do better than with Muammar' and conduct a proper trial.
'If they can convince the (ICC) judges,' Mr Moreno Ocampo said, 'we don't need to go and fight for a case.'
Suntem pe 11 septembrie. În sala sunt prezenti toti luptatorii. Hooper si Koprowski se ignora. Arbitrii deschid conferinta în onoarea lui Bill Hamilton, mare om de stiinta, exemplu pentru toti de geniu, integritate si deschidere. Aplauze... dupa care începe lupta...
"Prima contestare: metoda folosita de Hooper pentru a introduce o legatura între locul vaccinarilor si aparitia primelor cazuri de SIDA nu este corecta!"
"Fara a intra în detalii, mi se pare mai degraba dificil de sustinut ca nu exista nici o relatie."
"A doua dovada: Am calculat ca data aparitiei epidemiei este 1931!"
"Nu este valabil! Este stiut ca e doar o estimare ipotetica!"
"A treia dovada: nu s-au utilizat niciodata cimpanzei, Koprowski si alti cercetatori ai epocii o confirma!"
"Într-adevar nu exista documente dar am martori care confirma ca erau folositi cimpanzeii."
"Nu cumva doriti sa credeti pe muncitorii africani punând în dubiu pe cercetatorii occidentali?"
"Nu se accepta lovituri discriminatorii!"
"Tripsina elimina SIV-ul din primele faze ale productiei!"
"Nu se stie practic nimic despre unde si cum a fost amplificat vaccinul si daca a fost utilizata tripsina!"
"Vaccinul a fost folosit si pe 6 milioane de polonezi!"
"Dar este posibil ca doar vaccinurile utilizate în Congo sa fi fost amplificate cu rinichi de cimpanzeu."
Se descurca bine la blocarea loviturilor. Dar acum acest atac este fatal.
"Au fost în sfârsit testate vechile vaccinuri ale lui Koprowski!"
"Nu s-a gasit nici o urma de SIV, nici de HIV, nici de ADN de cimpanzeu, ci doar de maimute asiatice."
"Câteva noi lucruri au distrus o urâta teorie", "teoria îsi duce moartea finala!"
Originea Răului - Istoria unei controversate teorii despre originea SIDA. Un documentar teatral de Christian Biasco - Traducerea si adaptarea: Radu Trofin
It could be the biggest, most explosive story in modern history. We are just starting to put the pieces together and understand what is going on in the occult financial geopolitical scene, and how a 77-nation alliance is working to free the Earth from financial tyranny.
[UPDATE, NEXT MORNING: On the same day this article came out, Benjamin Fulford was allegedly detained in a hotel against his will by a "CIA-type group"... and his life may be in danger.
This caused him to miss his appearance on a TV show he was scheduled to be on. The videos are at the end. This could be serious. We pray for Ben's well-being and encourage you to help spread the word. Publicity is protection!
UPDATE, 12:44 AM SAME NIGHT: We just found out that Fulford is alive and OK. He may have been held in the hotel for his own protection, but we do not know yet. More information will follow as soon as we get it and will be updated below.
UPDATE WEDNESDAY 3:48 PM: I have received a very serious death threat from a highly-placed insider, who told me it would be "a very good idea" for me to release Part Two tonight. I will be working non-stop towards that goal. More at the bottom of the article.
UPDATE WEDNESDAY 5:43 PM: To all holders of the Wilcock File: DO NOT attempt to contact me in any way. Your instructions are now included in the most recent update.]
IT MAY BE THE BEST THING THAT'S EVER HAPPENED TO US
As I write these words, the average person is coming face-to-face with disturbing, if not dire news.
Not only could the disastrous financial debacle of 2008 be about to repeat itself, it may even be a lot worse this time.
As of November 28, 2011, media outlets announced that we could be as little as ten days away from a complete collapse of the Euro -- and with it, much of the rest of the world's economies could be pulled down as well.
Yet another grandiose "bailout" maneuver was used to buy some time -- but this has done little to address the gnawing unease in the public, particularly as the saber-rattling in the Middle East is again reaching a fever pitch.
This, at least, is the mainstream media's perspective on what is going on -- and thankfully, it is completely baseless.
In classic Orwellian terms -- such as "War is Peace, Freedom is Slavery, Ignorance is Strength" -- the mainstream media's "Global Financial Collapse" cry of doom may very well be the best thing that's ever happened to us.
At least in any known, recorded history.
A VERY MYSTERIOUS, VERY QUIET AND VERY LARGE-SCALE FINANCIAL SCANDAL
You are about to dive into a story that, for quite some time now, has been nothing but a great-sounding idea -- a wonderful "what if." Almost nothing of this story could be found in the mainstream media.
However, the bizarre origin of the story did briefly find its way into FOX's Glenn Beck show in 2009.
I highly recommend you watch this first, as it will draw you directly into the mystery -- which flickered for the briefest moment in mainstream media, only to disappear into shuddering silence:
Notice that Beck says FOX contacted the Treasury Department about this case, and received an official blow-off letter in response -- basically saying they had "no comment" on this 134 billion dollars in US bonds, seized at the Italian border, as it was "evidence in an ongoing investigation."
Beck then goes on to put up the numbers of which countries hold the largest numbers of US bonds. In order, they are China at 763.5 billion, Japan at 685.9 billion, the United Kingdom at 152.8 billion, Russia at 137.0 billion and Brazil at 126.0 billion.
Based on the public, unclassified numbers, 134.5 billion dollars in US bonds could only have been produced by Russia, the UK, Japan or China... no one else. The amount of money is so huge that if Russia produced it, they would only have 2.5 billion dollars in US bonds left over!
Joe Wiesenthal, the editor of BusinessInsider.com, said that whether this was a government dumping its bonds or a counterfeit operation, it was "gigantic" in scope and "unlike anything we've ever seen -- not just in size but also in sophistication."
According to Wiesenthal, in order to counterfeit these bonds, "it would be the kind of technology you would expect only a government to have." Wiesenthal also believes the 1934 issuance date on the bonds suggests they may be elaborate forgeries.
OTHER LINKS TO COVERAGE OF THE ORIGINAL SCANDAL
Once you know what you are looking for, you can do some digging and find all the most significant articles published online about this strange story when it first broke in June, 2009.
Ever since this bizarre event happened, the only follow-up to the story has been in the form of an elaborate amount of 'insider' information leaked by Benjamin Fulford -- the former Asia-Pacific bureau chief for Forbes Magazine -- on a week-by-week basis.
Finally, the lawsuit at the epicenter of this investigation has now become a tangible reality -- validating everything Fulford has been saying about this mysterious case since it originally started.
Looming storm clouds threatened to demolish Fulford's credibility in a single crash of lightning as the all-important date of November 15th, 2011 came and went -- with nothing to show for it -- after years of fanfare and buildup on his websites.
However, on November 23, 2011, the clouds parted. A vast, 111-page legal complaint was filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. This complaint is now a provable matter of public record... as you are about to see.
I have since discovered hundreds of pages of intricate, complex material to read, firsthand eyewitnesses to interview, and official documents to scrutinize. There is no lack of "homework" to be done for those who are interested.
GO LOOK FOR YOURSELF
Here is the search window that opens up when you go to pacer.gov and register as a user for eight cents a page. This website is a public service that allows you to search for any and all legal cases that have been filed in America:
Once you've set up your user account, type in "Keenan, Neil" under "Party Name", and you will then see this:
Notice the fifth item down on the list... 2011-cv-8500, filed on November 23, 2011. That's the one. You can then click into it from there, and one of the screens you will pull up is the following:
Did you catch that list of defendants?
If the amount of money being sued for isn't stunning enough, that list of defendants should attract a great deal of attention -- for it includes the Italian Republic, the Italian Financial Police, Italy's Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, the World Economic Forum, Ban Ki-Moon (the head of the UN), and the United Nations itself.
What the hell is going on here?
If you don't want creepy government spies watching you, and you don't want to pay eight cents a page, here's the entire PDF file as it appears once you download it off the PACER website -- parked locally here at our website, Divine Cosmos, and a mirror on TurismoAssociati.it - Trilingual World Observatory:
David Wilcock (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-wilcock) is a professional lecturer, filmmaker and researcher of ancient civilizations, consciousness science, and new paradigms of matter and energy. His upcoming Hollywood film Convergence unveils the proof that all life on Earth is united in a field of consciousness, which affects our minds in fascinating ways. Visit him on the web atwww.divinecosmos.com.
Stanford materials science professor Yi Cui, who led the work, says a tremendous amount of research goes into making batteries store more energy for longer, but little attention has been paid to making them "more beautiful, and fancier."
Researchers have previously made transparent variations on other major classes of electronics, including transistors and the components used to control displays, but not yet batteries. "And if you can't make the battery transparent, you can't make the gadget transparent," says Cui.
Some battery components are easier to make using transparent materials than others. The electrodes are the tricky part, says Cui. One way to make a transparent electrode is to make it very thin, on the order of about 100 nanometers thick. But a thin electrode typically can't store enough energy to be useful.
Another approach is to make the electrode in the form of a pattern that has features smaller than the naked eye can see. As long as there is enough total electrode material in the battery, this type of electrode can still store a significant amount of energy. Cui designed a mesh electrode where all the lines of the mesh are on the order of 50 micrometers, effectively invisible, and the squares inside the mesh contain no battery materials.
Fabrication is also tricky, since the usual methods for making components at this resolution require harsh chemical processes that damage battery materials. The Stanford group instead used a relatively simple method to make the transparent mesh electrodes, which are held together inside a clear, squishy polymer called PDMS.
They start by using lithography to make a mold on a silicon wafer. Then they pour liquid PDMS over the mold, cure the polymer to solidify it, and peel it off the mold. The PDMS sheet is then engraved with a grid of narrow channels. Next they drip a solution of electrode materials onto the surface of the PDMS. Capillary action pulls the materials in until they have filled all the channels to create the mesh. The researchers used standard lithium-ion battery materials to make their electrodes.
To make the complete battery, they sandwich a clear gel electrolyte between the two electrodes, and put it all inside a protective plastic wrapping. The Stanford researchers created prototypes, and used them to power an LED whose light can be seen through the battery itself.
Cui says these batteries should, in theory, be able to store about half as much energy as an equivalent-sized opaque battery, because there is a trade-off between energy density and transparency. They can lay down a thicker mesh of electrode materials to store more energy, but that means less light will get through.
So far, his lab's prototypes can store 20 watt-hours per liter, about as much energy as a nickel-cadmium battery, but Cui expects to improve this by an order of magnitude, in part by reducing the thickness of the polymer substrate, and also making the trenches that hold the electrode materials deeper.
Another way to store more energy without sacrificing transparency would be to stack multiple cells on top of one another in such a way that the grid of the electrodes lined up, allowing light to pass through. So far, the group has made electrodes that are about an inch across, but Cui says they could be made much larger, and the material could simply be cut to the desired size.
A grimMinistry of Defensebulletin issued to Prime Minister Putin and President Medvedev on December 7, 2011 states that President Hu has“agreed in principal”that the only way to stop the West’s aggression led by theis through“direct and immediate military action”and that the Chinese leader has ordered his Naval Forces to“prepare for warfare.”
The raising of global tensions between the East and West was exploded this past fortnight when Russian Ambassador Vladimir Titorenko and two of his aides retuning from Syria were brutally assaulted and put in hospitalby Qatar security forces aided by CIA and British MI6 agents attempting to gain access to diplomatic pouches containing information from Syrian intelligence that the United States was flooding Syria and Iran with the sameUS-backed al Qaida mercenarieswho toppled the Libyan government.
Further evidence in these diplomatic pouches, this bulletin says, reveals that theis preparing an“ultimate solution”to the Middle East Crisis should nuclear war break out by attackingandwith lethal biological agents intended to kill tens of millions of innocent civilians.
The discovery of the biological agent to be used by the West was revealed a fortnight ago by Dutch virologist Ron Fouchier of the Erasmus Medical Centre in the Netherlands who lead a team of scientists that discovered thata mere five mutations to the avian flu viruswas sufficient to make it spread far more easily and would make it the most lethal killer of mankind ever invented.
These frightening assessments of future US actions against its enemies were revealed in this bulletin based upon Russian intelligence analysts examination of the RQ-170 Sentinel Drone brought down over Iranian territory last week by the Russian madeAvtobaza ground-based electronic intelligence and jamming systemused against this unmanned aerial vehicle with little damage and that showed it be equipped with a sophisticated aerosol delivery system.
Important to note is that the Western powers first use of a deadly flu virus to destroy their enemies and overthrow the established global order was first used less than a century ago in 1918 when theSpanish Flu variantwas unleashed at the ending of World War I and killed an estimated 500 million people which represented fully 3% of the world’s entire population.
Archived KGB files on the Spanish Flu pandemic have always stated that this deadly virus was“bio-engineered”by US military scientists who used as their“guinea pigs”American Soldiers who were thefirst recorded victimsand were stationed atFort Riley,Kansas .
As we noted inour previous report, it is worth mentioning again the words of the American Founding Father, Thomas Jefferson, who warned his fellow citizens over 200 years ago about what is happening today by saying:
[Ed. Note: Western governments and their intelligence services actively campaign against the information found in these reports so as not to alarm their citizens about the many catastrophic Earth changes and events to come, a stance that theSisters of Sorcha Faalstrongly disagrees with in believing that it is every human beings right to know the truth.Due to our missions conflicts with that of those governments, the responses of their ‘agents’ against us has been a longstanding misinformation/misdirection campaign designed to discredit and which is addressed in the report “Who Is Sorcha Faal?”.]
Una drammatica pagina di cronaca che ha relegato in secondo piano le motivazioni della protesta: gli Indignados scendono in strada in tutto il mondo per denunciare lo strapotere di un pugno di corporazioni, colpevoli, secondo loro, di aver portato l’economia al collasso. Per questo chiedono nuove idee, nuove regole, nuovi criteri di distribuzione della ricchezza. Hanno ragione? A quanto pare sì, e questa volta a dirlo non sono politici, sociologi o economisti, ma scienziati.
In uno studio, che verrà presto pubblicato sulle pagine della rivista PLoS One, un gruppo di ricercatori dello Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ha analizzato la complessa rete di rapporti che lega migliaia di multinazionali. E ha scoperto che, tra queste, appena 147 (soprattutto banche) detengono il 40% del potere economico globale. Quindi, alla fine dei conti, le paure degli Indignados non sembrerebbero poi così campate in aria, al di là di qualsiasi semplificazione ideologica.
"La realtà è molto complessa - ha detto al New Scientist James Glattfelder, uno degli autori dello studio - e dobbiamo liberarci dai condizionamenti ideologici, siano teorie di cospirazione o di libero mercato. La nostra analisi è basata su dati concreti”. In effetti, i ricercatori svizzeri hanno raccolto informazioni su migliaia di multinazionali analizzando i dati con modelli matematici normalmente applicati allo studio del mondo naturale. Così facendo, sono riusciti a mappare l’intricata rete di connessioni (chi possiede chi e in quale misura) che lega tra loro corporazioni di tutto il mondo, scoprendo che a far girare l’economia sono davvero in pochi.
In realtà, altri studi avevano già dimostrato che il cuore del potere economico globale è concentrato nelle mani di pochi attori, ma questo sembra essere il più completo: oltre ad analizzare un campione molto ampio, infatti, ne mette a nudo tutti i rapporti, diretti e indiretti. Il database da cui i ricercatori svizzeri hanno raccolto le informazioni sulle multinazionali si chiama Orbis 2007 e racchiude circa 37 milioni di compagnie in tutto il mondo. Tra queste, ne sono state scelte solo 43.060, cioè le vere e proprie multinazionali.
Dall’analisi delle loro relazioni, è venuto fuori un gruppo di 1.318 corporazioni intimamente interconnesse (ognuna è legata, direttamente o meno, ad altre 2 o più compagnie). Questo gruppetto di multinazionali controlla la maggior parte delle società ad alta capitalizzazione azionaria e delle firme manifatturiere, il potere economico cui si ascrive il 60% dei ricavi operativi globali.
Ma scavando ancora più a fondo, i ricercatori hanno tirato fuori il vero zoccolo duro dell’economia: 147 compagnie super connesse che controllano quasi la metà della rete. “In effetti, meno dell’1% delle multinazionali ne controlla il 40%”, ha sottolineato Glattfelder. Ma chi sono queste superpotenze? Soprattutto istituti finanziari: per esempio Barclays Bank, JPMorgan Chase & Co, The Goldman Sachs Group e UniCredit SPA (per una lista completa delle top 50 si veda in fondo all’articolo).
Dov’è il pericolo se un piccolo numero di persone ha in mano quasi tutto il potere? In economia, come spiega John Driffill dell’Università di Londra, la concentrazione del potere non è di per sé né giusta né sbagliata. Il problema sono le connessioni interne: se la rete ha poche, concentrate maglie, l’economia è in pericolo. “Se un compagnia fallisce – afferma Glattfelder – il malessere si propaga”. In altre parole, una rete compressa significa un’ economia instabile. Ecco perché i ricercatori svizzeri rivendicano l’importanza dei risultati del loro studio: conoscendo l’architettura del potere economico globale, infatti, si può arginare il collasso intervenendo là dove la rete è più debole (tagliando alcune connessioni e coinvolgendo nuovi soggetti per costruirne di nuove). Lo stesso Glattfelder ipotizza regole anti-trust internazionali che, al pari di quelle nazionali, limitino il numero di rapporti tra multinazionali.
Yaneer Bar-Yam, a capo del New England Complex Systems Institute (Necsi), suggerisce un’altra soluzione: tassare le multinazionali che superano un certo limite di relazioni, così da scoraggiarle. Anche se è lui stesso a sottolineare che l’analisi dei ricercatori svizzeri è viziata da un errore, cioè dare per scontato che se una società ne possiede un’altra allora la controlla, un’equazione non sempre vera. Comunque sia, la realtà dei fatti è innegabile: la ricchezza del mondo è nelle mani di pochi. E tutti sospettano che questi pochi resisteranno il più strenuamente possibile alle perturbazioni esterne, cioè a qualsiasi tentativo di modificarne la struttura con nuove regole economiche.
Le prime 50 delle 147 multinazionali super-connesse:
1. Barclays plc; 2. Capital Group Companies Inc; 3. FMR Corporation; 4. AXA; 5. State Street Corporation; 6. JP Morgan Chase & Co; 7. Legal & General Group plc; 8. Vanguard Group Inc; 9. UBS AG; 10. Merrill Lynch & Co Inc; 11. Wellington Management Co LLP; 12. Deutsche Bank AG; 13. Franklin Resources Inc; 14. Credit Suisse Group; 15. Walton Enterprises LLC; 16. Bank of New York Mellon Corp; 17. Natixis; 18. Goldman Sachs Group Inc; 19. T Rowe Price Group Inc; 20. Legg Mason Inc; 21. Morgan Stanley; 22. Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group Inc; 23. Northern Trust Corporation; 24. Société Générale; 25. Bank of America Corporation; 26. Lloyds TSB Group plc; 27. Invesco plc; 28. Allianz SE 29. TIAA; 30. Old Mutual Public Limited Company; 31. Aviva plc; 32. Schroders plc; 33. Dodge & Cox; 34. Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc; 35.Sun Life Financial Inc; 36. Standard Life plc; 37. CNCE; 38. Nomura Holdings Inc; 39. The Depository Trust Company; 40. Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance; 41. ING Groep NV; 42. Brandes Investment Partners LP; 43. Unicredito Italiano SPA; 44. Deposit Insurance Corporation of Japan; 45. Vereniging Aegon; 46. BNP Paribas ; 47. Affiliated Managers Group Inc; 48. Resona Holdings Inc ; 49. Capital Group International Inc; 50. China Petrochemical Group Company.
The chief focus of this talk was a detailed explanation of the linked European economic crises (of the Euro as common currency, of the sovereign debt of major European economies, and of deepening disunity among members of the European community). The particular position and policies of German capitalism are stressed as central to explaining these crises.
These Tuesday evenings will each begin with an update and analysis of major economic events of the last month and their contexts of longer-term economic trends shaping politics and society here and abroad. We will focus on the evolving global capitalist economic crisis and its consequences. We will examine topics such as
the social costs effects of the historic long-term US unemployment,
national debt crises and “austerity programs” in Greece, Ireland, Spain, and beyond
changes in today’s Chinese economy and their global effects,
tax reform and the entire tax issue in the US today,
continuing crisis in the US housing and credit markets
the economics of immigration
Actual economic developments will shape the agenda for each monthly Tuesday meeting. Rick Wolff, with occasional guests, will present an economic update and an analysis of some particular economic topics and then open the floor to questions, comments and a general discussion of where the US and world economies are going and the political implications. We aim to develop participants’ understanding of and ability to explain to others the key economic developments of our time.
Edward Hooper, “Râul. O calatorie catre izvorul de HIV si SIDA”, 1999. Zece ani de cercetari. Mii de documente consultate prin zeci de arhive americane, europene, africane. Sute de ore de interviuri. Totul publicat de catre una dintre cele mai mari edituri din lume. Nu putea fi ignorat cum s-a facut cu Pascal, si nu putea fi lichidat cu un proces ca pe Curtis. Sunt mai bine de o mie de pagini: o frumoasa caramida!
Capitolul al Saselea: Royal Society
Dupa aparitia cartii lui Hooper, presa e interesata de teorie. Comunitatea stiintifica nu poate ramâne în tacere. Hooper este singur, dar are un aleat de tot respectul: Bill Hamilton.
Cine e Bill Hamilton? Bill Hamilton este probabil cel mai mare biolog al secolului XX. Întâi e Darwin dupa care vine Hamilton. Bill Hamilton, dupa rezultatul procesului împotriva lui Curtis, intervenise deja în apararea plauzibilitatii teoriei si pentru a evidentia pericolul generat de catre procese asupra stiintei. De la nivelul prestigiului sau, scrisese catre Science, care… (de doua ori!) refuzase sa publice. Atunci a scris catre “Nature”, o alta prestigioasa revista, care... a refuzat sa publice.
Dupa aparitia cartii lui Hooper, Hamilton decide sa aiba un rol mai activ: decide sa organizeze un meeting de discutie în cadrul Royal Society din Londra, cea mai prestigioasa academie de stiinte din lume, a carei membru onorariu el bineînteles este. La meeting invita exponentii principali din cercetare (epidemiologi, virusologi, primatologi, experti în genetica), pentru a discuta cele doua teorii principale despre originea SIDA: Teoria trecerii naturale si teoria vaccinului.
Dar Hamilton doreste si ca noi cercetari sa fie efectuate. Satul de raspunsuri de genul: “da, este interesant, dar fondurile noastre de cercetare vin de la... deci nu as dori sa ating acest argument”. Decide ca el însusi sa participe la cercetarea a noi informatii stiintifice: organizeaza astfel o serie de expeditii în Congo. O prima misiune porneste pe parcursul lui 1999, pe când la începutul lui 2000, pleaca cea de a doua.
Dar aceasta istorie, ce pare a fi scrisa de un slab scenarist de telenovele, are o alta lovitura de teatru: Hamilton contracteaza în Congo malaria. Reintra în Anglia si dupa putine zile cade în coma. Pe 7 martie 2000, la vârsta de 64 de ani, Bill Hamilton, cel mai mare biolog al secolului XX, moare.
Cred ca nimeni nu a fost atât de cinic pentru a se bucura de disparitia lui Hamilton, însa la scurt timp se aud voci ce spun ca teoriei i se ofera prea mult spatiu, ca meeting-ul, dupa prevederile lui Hamilton este prea neechilibrat, iar daca nu va fi modificat multi dintre participanti nu se vor prezenta. Astfel meeting-ul este amânat din mai în septembrie, fiind reorganizat. Noua data este una dintre acelea care nu se uita: 11 septembrie 2000, la un an de la o alta zi de neuitat.
Originea Răului - Istoria unei controversate teorii despre originea SIDA. Un documentar teatral de Christian Biasco - Traducerea si adaptarea: Radu Trofin