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Di seguito tutti gli interventi pubblicati sul sito, in ordine cronologico.
 
 

Dopo due ore e mezza di salita, l'ultima cosa che questo scalatore dovrà fare sarà guardarsi alle spalle.

Lo scalatore scozzese Graeme Ettle sulla parete dell'Inn Pinn, sull'Isola di Skye in Scozia.

Sotto ai suoi piedi, infatti, c'è il scivoloso basalto dell'Inn Pinn ("Inaccesible Pinnacle") il pinnacolo più erto e sporgente della Sgurr Dearg, una montagna dell'Isola di Skye (Scozia), a 986 metri sul livello del mare. Una cima che, per la sua pendenza, è considerata tra le più insidiose da affrontare.

A conquistarla con una buona dose di sangue freddo e soltanto una fune di sicurezza, è stato il freeclimber professionista e guida alpina scozzese Graeme Ettle, lo scorso agosto.

Chi ha immortalato la scena non è meno coraggioso: per scattare la foto Dave Cuthbertson, amico e compatriota di Ettle, si è arrampicato su un pinnacolo poco distante, con tanto di treppiedi in spalla.

Fonte: Focus.it

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S-a stins într-un moment de apogeu al carierei sale, când se bucura de o recunoastere si apreciere în mare crestere, scrierile sale si dezbaterile televizate la care a participat bucurându-se de o receptare tot mai largă. Este unul dintre autorii contemporani care au arătat, o dată în plus, cu o fortă impresionantă câtă putere stă în idei si în cărti. Si că pretul libertătii de constiintă, oricât de scump, merită plătit.

Christopher Hitchens

Moartea sa a fost consemnată printre primele stiri în întreaga presă internatională de top, de la Washington Post si CNN, la The Guardian.

S-au scris numeroase articole elogioase si au fost transmise mesaje emotionante din partea unor importante personalităti precum Richard Dawkins, Salman Rushdie, Julian Barnes, Andrew Sullivan si multi altii. Prieteni sau adversari de idei cu totii au apreciat stilul briliant al scrierilor lui Hitchens. Vineri după-amiază când am deschis radioul pe BBC, Tony Blair, fostul premier britanic, cu care Hitchens avusese o polemică televizată pro sau contra religiei în 2010, câstigată detasat de Hitchens, vorbea admirativ despre cel dispărut acum.


Extrem de interesanta dezbatere dintre Christopher Hitchens si Tony Blair pe tema “Is Religion A Force For Good In The World?” (Este religia o fortă a binelui în lume?)

În noiembrie 2011, actorii Sean Penn si Stephen Fry, împreună cu scriitorul Martin Amis au organizat un eveniment de celebrare a vietii si operei lui Hitchens, pe care acesta l-a urmărit live imobilizat la pat în locuinta sa din Texas.

Se stia de peste doi ani de afectiunea gravă (cancer esofagian) de care suferea Hitchens. El însusi a declarat în 2010 că ar fi foarte norocos dacă ar mai trăi încă 5 ani. Demnitatea cu care a întâmpinat moartea acest ateu sfidează încăpătânarea cu care multi oameni îsi amanetează constiinta, din frică de moarte, pentru speranta desartă într-o viată de apoi. Un pastor american, Rick Warren, bun prieten cu Hitchens, a notat pe Twitter „My friend Christopher Hitchens has died. I loved & prayed for him constantly & grieve his loss. He knows the Truth now”. (Prietenul meu Christopher Hitchens a murit. L-am iubit si m-am rugat pentru el mereu si sunt întristat de pierderea lui. El cunoaste acum Adevărul.) Probabil însă că un răspuns al lui Hitchens la aceste cuvinte, în stilul care l-a consacrat, ar fi fost „I knew it before” (Îl stiam dinainte).

Oricum, ca o precizare necesară si fată de titlul acestui articol în care l-am parafrazat pe Richard Dawkins, este o eroare să se considere că Dumnezeu este perceput de un necredincios drept o realitate obiectivă. Necredinciosul critic fată de religie se luptă nu cu un Dumnezeu care ar exista, ci un construct cultural din mintile oamenilor numit dumnezeu. Problema cu această notiune de dumnezeu este că ea nu rămâne o simplă categorie filosofică de discutat în universităti, ci reprezintă temeiul unor opinii si viziuni despre lume si viată care pot intra uneori în conflict radical cu valorile culturale, stiintifice, etice si democratice care stau la baza civilizatiei moderne occidentale. De aici si confruntarea de idei din jurul conceptului de dumnezeu.


Hitchens a scris mult despre alti gânditori si scriitori importanti ale căror valori si opere au reprezentat o sursă de inspiratie pentru el, consacrând câte o carte lui George Orwell, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine.

Dintre numeroasele volume publicate, “God is not great. How Religion Poisons Everything” (Dumnezeu nu este Mare. Cum religia otrăveste totul), din 2007 a devenit best seller, numai în Statele Unite cartea fiind vândută în peste 500.000 de exemplare.

Coperta editiei americane a cărtii “God Is Not Great”

A scris timp de 4 decenii editoriale pentru reviste precum The Atlantic, Vanity Fair, Slate, World Affairs, The Nation, Free Inquiry.

A fost un constant critic al dictaturilor si un apărător al libertătii de exprimare. A luat apărarea caricaturistilor danezi care au publicat imaginile cu Mohamed organizând o manifestare de sprijin în fata ambasadei Danemarcei la Washington.

În anul 2000 l-a sustinut pe candidatul ecologist Ralph Nader la alegerile prezindentiale din Statele Unite care a obtinut peste 2.883.105 voturi.

Hitchens a criticat virulent politicieni, personalităti publice si religioase, precum Bill Clinton, Henry Kissinger, Maica Tereza, George Bush Jr., Mel Gibson, Sarah Palin, Michael Moore, Dalai Lama, Hilary Clinton, Ronald Reagan… despre Maica Tereza chiar a scris o carte:

„The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice” (Pozitia misionarului: Maica Tereza în teorie si practică). Deocamdată, Hitchens nu a fost tradus în limba română…

Pe Hitchens l-am întâlnit în 2008, la Washington, cu prilejul Congresului Mondial Umanist. Am avut prilejul unei discutii cu el dintre care o parte a fost filmată si poate fi vizionată mai jos.

Discutia de câteva minute avută cu Christopher Hitchens la Washington, în 2008, cu prilejul Congresului Mondial Umanist

A răspuns afirmativ invitatiei pe care i-am făcut-o pentru a conferentia în România. Cancerul esofagian galopant care l-a afectat în ultimii 2-3 ani a împiedicat împlinirea acestei promisiuni care ar fi putut fi un eveniment remarcabil pentru tara noastră.

Am filmat, de asemenea, discursul de cca 15 minute, tinut de Hitchens în cadrul Congresului Mondial Umanist din 2008. Puteti viziona filmarea, în două părti, mai jos:

Christopher Hitchens – Discursul tinut la World Humanist Congress din Washington, iunie 2008 – partea I

Christopher Hitchens – Discursul tinut la World Humanist Congress din Washington, iunie 2008 – partea a II-a

Ca un detaliu foarte interesant din biografia lui Hitchens este si acela că a fost corespondent la Timisoara în zilele revolutiei din 1989 si a rămas interesat de evolutia lucrurilor în tara noastră. În 1990 a realizat o emisiune despre România împreună cu scriitorul american de origine română Andrei Codrescu. Puteti vedea filmarea, de cca 30 de minute, mai jos sau la acest link:

'

Filmarea începe la minutul 1 al înregistrării…

Iată si câteva citate din Hitchens:

“[George W Bush] is lucky to be governor of Texas. He is unusually incurious, abnormally unintelligent, amazingly inarticulate, fantastically uncultured, extraordinarily uneducated, and apparently quite proud of all these things.”Hardball with Chris Matthews, NBC, 2000

„George Bush este norocos să fie guvernator al statului Texas. El este un om neobisnuit de lipsit de curiozitate, anormal de lipsit de inteligentă, uimitor de incoerent, fantastic de lipsit de cultură, extraordinar de lipsit de educatie si aparent foarte mândru de toate aceste lucruri.”

“[Mother Teresa] was not a friend of the poor. She was a friend of poverty. She said that suffering was a gift from God. She spent her life opposing the only known cure for poverty, which is the empowerment of women and the emancipation of them from a livestock version of compulsory reproduction.”Slate, October 2003

„Maica Tereza nu a fost prietena celor săraci. Ea a fost prietena sărăciei. Ea a afirmat că suferinta este un dar de la Dumnezeu. Si-a petrecut viata opunându-se singurei căi de rezolvare a sărăciei, care este cresterea puterii femeilor si emanciparea lor fată de stilul de viată al reproducerii obligatorii.”

“The search for nirvana, like the search for utopia or the end of history or the classless society, is ultimately a futile and dangerous one. It involves, if it does not necessitate, the sleep of reason. There is no escape from anxiety and struggle.” – Love, Poverty, and War: Journeys and Essays, 2004

Căutarea nirvanei, ca si căutarea utopiei sau a sfârsitului istoriei sau o societate fără clase este, până la urmă, una futilă si periculoasă. Ea implică, dacă nu face necesar, somnul ratiunii. Nu există scăpare fată de anxietate si luptă.

“The only position that leaves me with no cognitive dissonance is atheism. It is not a creed. Death is certain, replacing both the siren-song of Paradise and the dread of Hell. Life on this earth, with all its mystery and beauty and pain, is then to be lived far more intensely: we stumble and get up, we are sad, confident, insecure, feel loneliness and joy and love. There is nothing more; but I want nothing more.” – The Portable Atheist: Essential Readings for the Non-Believer, 2007

Singura postură care nu îmi produce vreo disonantă cognitivă este ateismul. Acesta nu este o credintă. Moartea e sigură, înlocuind atât cântecul de sirenă al Paradisului cât si oroarea fată de Infern. Viata pe pământ, cu tot misterul si frumusetea si suferinta ei, este de trăit cât mai intens: ne prăbusim si ne ridicăm, suntem tristi, încrezători, nesiguri, simtim singurătatea si bucuria si dragostea. Nu este nimic mai mult; dar nu îmi doresc nimic mai mult.

În amintirea lui Christopher Hitchens vă invit să ascultati “Adagio”, superba compozitie Albinoni/Giazotto, într-o interpretare răvăsitoare, sub bagheta lui Herbert von Karajan:

PS: Vă invit să comentati acest editorial într-un spirit de respect reciproc, în care să primeze argumentul si nu atacul la persoană…

Sursa: voxpublica.realitatea.net - Autor: Remus Cernea

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... CONTINUA. LEGATURA AICI.


Capitolul al Saptelea: final

Vechile vaccinuri

Contestarea finala a teoriei vaccinului oral antipolio se baza în mod esential pe analiza vechilor vaccinuri ale lui Koprowski. Dar de unde aparusera? Câteva erau conservate în Statele Unite, altele în Europa.

Curtis tocmai din 1992, le descoperise existenta si ceruse în mai multe rânduri sa fie testate, dar grupul de experti de la Institutul Wistar considera ca testele ar fi fost: "laborioase, scumpe si neconcludente". Pentru care motiv? Poate pentru ca nici un esantion nu avea o relatie directa cu vaccinarile din Congo, tinând cont ca era vorba de loturi originale, deci care nu au fost înca amplificate în rinichi de maimuta sau cimpanzeu? În orice caz teoria nu prevedea ca toate vaccinurile sa fi fost contaminate si mai mult, dupa 40 de ani era posibil ca sa nu se mai gaseasca urme de HIV.

Martin ca si Hooper au scris catre Nature pentru a contesta rezultatele. Ghiciti? Nici una dintre cele doua scrisori nu a fost acceptata. Hooper se pronunta acum sigur ca originea SIDA sta în vaccinurile antipolio folosite în Africa si acuza lumea stiintifica ca ascunde adevarul. Comunitatea stiintifica continua sa repete ca teoria nu are pe ce se baza si ca reprezinta o amenintare pentru campaniile de vaccinari.

Cine decide?

"O lectie pe care trebuie sa o învatam din aceasta istorie este ca teoria e plauzibila si ca e deci necesara prudenta înainte de a introduce un tratament medical derivat din tesut animal, ca si vaccinurile vii, atenuate si xenotransplanturile". Astfel se încheia meetingul de la Royal Society în 2000.

Vaccinurile moderne sunt înca produse folosind rinichi de maimuta.  Vreau poate sa spun ca vaccinurile antipolio moderne sunt periculoase? Nu. Chiar daca poate ca ar fi mai potrivita utilizarea altor tehnici de productie, cred oricum ca experienta câstigata în 50 de ani le-a facut foarte sigure. În nici un caz nu doresc ca aceasta munca sa fie utilizata pentru a spune ca vaccinarile sunt un rau. Tocmai multumita vaccinurilor, poliomielita aproape ca nu mai exista.

Dar exista alte situatii în care se cere prudenta. Ingineria genetica, clonarea, alimente transgenice, noi tehnologii, noi medicamente, xenotransplanturi: transplante de organe animale la om. Cine decide când este riscul acceptabil? Si cum? Eu cred ca, oricum, astfel de decizii apartin colectivitatii, nu grupurilor scrupuloase de cercetatori.

DVD: L'origine del Male

Final

Dar daca teoria ar rezulta adevarata, ar trebui învinovatit Koprowski? Dar la ce ar folosi? Cred ca este mai important sa ne întrebam care este în schimb responsabilitatea structurala. Koprowski reprezinta o parte a lumii stiintifice moderne.

La ce ne va duce o societate bazata pe competitie si individualism, unde conteaza doar cine este mai puternic, cine are mai mult, cine vinde mai bine si unde doar cine ajunge primul câstiga (si deci cineva tot timpul va trebui sa piarda)? Din ce în ce mai multe persoane, sau întregi companii, se vor forta sa-si asume riscuri tot mai mari, chiar daca asta poate duce la dezastre de vaste proportii.

Cineva m-a întrebat daca sunt sigur ca vreau sa ma pun împotriva stiintei... Dar cred în schimb, ca aceasta istorie mai mult de orice ne învata cum este importanta dezvoltarea elementului fundamental al stiintei: propriul simt critic.

Mai mult stiinta nu semnifica adevar, certitudini, dar mai întâi de toate stiinta semnifica sa recunosti limitele cunostintei noastre.

Dar dupa voi, teoria vaccinului oral este adevarata sau nu? Eu, nu pot decât sa va raspund în mod extrem de stiintific: Nu se stie.

SFÂRSIT

Originea Răului - Istoria unei controversate teorii despre originea SIDA. Un documentar teatral de Christian Biasco - Traducerea si adaptarea: Radu Trofin

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"Brain cap" technology being developed at the University of Maryland allows users to turn their thoughts into motion. Associate Professor of Kinesiology José 'Pepe' L. Contreras-Vidal and his team have created a non-invasive, sensor-lined cap with neural interface software that soon could be used to control computers, robotic prosthetic limbs, motorized wheelchairs and even digital avatars.

"We are on track to develop, test and make available to the public- within the next few years -- a safe, reliable, noninvasive brain computer interface that can bring life-changing technology to millions of people whose ability to move has been diminished due to paralysis, stroke or other injury or illness," said Contreras-Vidal of the university's School of Public Health.

The potential and rapid progression of the UMD brain cap technology can be seen in a host of recent developments, including a just published study in the Journal of Neurophysiology, new grants from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Institutes of Health, and a growing list of partners that includes the University of Maryland School of Medicine, the Veterans Affairs Maryland Health Care System, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Rice University and Walter Reed Army Medical Center's Integrated Department of Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation.

"We are doing something that few previously thought was possible," said Contreras-Vidal, who is also an affiliate professor in Maryland's Fischell Department of Bioengineering and the university's Neuroscience and Cognitive Science Program. "We use EEG [electroencephalography] to non-invasively read brain waves and translate them into movement commands for computers and other devices.

Peer Reviewed

Contreras-Vidal and his team have published three major papers on their technology over the past 18 months, the latest a just released study in the Journal of Neurophysiology in which they successfully used EEG brain signals to reconstruct the complex 3-D movements of the ankle, knee and hip joints during human treadmill walking. In two earlier studies they showed (1) similar results for 3-D hand movement and (2) that subjects wearing the brain cap could control a computer cursor with their thoughts.

Alessandro Presacco, a second-year doctoral student in Contreras-Vidal's Neural Engineering and Smart Prosthetics Lab, Contreras-Vidal and co-authors write that their Journal of Neurophysiology study indicated "that EEG signals can be used to study the cortical dynamics of walking and to develop brain-machine interfaces aimed at restoring human gait function."

There are other brain computer interface technologies under development, but Contreras-Vidal notes that these competing technologies are either very invasive, requiring electrodes to be implanted directly in the brain, or, if noninvasive, require much more training to use than does UMD's EEG-based, brain cap technology.

Partnering to Help Sufferers of Injury and Stroke

Contreras-Vidal and his team are collaborating on a rapidly growing cadre projects with researchers at other institutions to develop thought-controlled robotic prosthetics that can assist victims of injury and stroke. Their latest partnership is supported by a new $1.2 million NSF grant. Under this grant, Contreras-Vidal's Maryland team is embarking on a four-year project with researchers at Rice University, the University of Michigan and Drexel University to design a prosthetic arm that amputees can control directly with their brains, and which will allow users to feel what their robotic arm touches.

"There's nothing fictional about this," said Rice University co-principal investigator Marcia O'Malley, an associate professor of mechanical engineering. "The investigators on this grant have already demonstrated that much of this is possible. What remains is to bring all of it -- non-invasive neural decoding, direct brain control and [touch] sensory feedback -- together into one device."

In a NIH-supported project underway, Contreras-Vidal and his colleagues are pairing their brain cap's EEG-based technology with a DARPA-funded next-generation robotic arm designed by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory to function like a normal limb. And the UMD team is developing a new collaboration with the New Zealand's start-up Rexbionics, the developer of a powered lower-limb exoskeleton called Rex that could be used to restore gait after spinal cord injury.

Two of the earliest partnerships formed by Contreras-Vidal and his team are with the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore and the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Baltimore. A particular focus of this research is the use of the brain cap technology to help stroke victims whose brain injuries affect their motor-sensory control. Originally funded by a seed grant from the University of Maryland, College Park and the University of Maryland, Baltimore, the work now also is supported by a VA merit grant (anklebot BMI) and an NIH grant (Stroke).

"There is a big push in brain science to understand what exercise does in terms of motor learning or motor retraining of the human brain," says Larry Forrester, an associate professor of physical therapy and rehabilitation science at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.

For the more than a year, Forrester and the UMD team have tracked the neural activity of people on a treadmill doing precise tasks like stepping over dotted lines. The researchers are matching specific brain activity recorded in real time with exact lower-limb movements.

This data could help stroke victims in several ways, Forrester says. One is a prosthetic device, called an "anklebot," or ankle robot, that stores data from a normal human gait and assists partially paralyzed people. People who are less mobile commonly suffer from other health issues such as obesity, diabetes or cardiovascular problems, Forrester says, "so we want to get [stroke survivors] up and moving by whatever means possible."

The second use of the EEG data in stroke victims is more complex, yet offers exciting possibilities. "By decoding the motion of a normal gait," Contreras-Vidal says, "we can then try and teach stroke victims to think in certain ways and match their own EEG signals with the normal signals." This could "retrain" healthy areas of the brain in what is known as neuroplasticity.

One potential method for retraining comes from one of the Maryland research team's newest members, Steve Graff, a first-year bioengineering doctoral student. He envisions a virtual reality game that matches real EEG data with on-screen characters. "It gives us a way to train someone to think the right thoughts to generate movement from digital avatars. If they can do that, then they can generate thoughts to move a device," says Graff, who brings a unique personal perspective to the work. He has congenital muscular dystrophy and uses a motorized wheelchair. The advances he's working on could allow him to use both hands -- to put on a jacket, dial his cell phone or throw a football while operating his chair with his mind.

No Surgery Required

During the past two decades a great deal of progress has been made in the study of direct brain to computer interfaces, most of it through studies using monkeys with electrodes implanted in their brains. However, for use in humans such an invasive approach poses many problems, not the least of which is that most people don't' want holes in their heads and wires attached to their brains. "EEG monitoring of the brain, which has a long, safe history for other applications, has been largely ignored by those working on brain-machine interfaces, because it was thought that the human skull blocked too much of the detailed information on brain activity needed to read thoughts about movement and turn those readings into movement commands for multi-functional high-degree of freedom prosthetics," said Contreras-Vidal. He is among the few who have used EEG, MEG or other sensing technologies to develop non-invasive neural interfaces, and the only one to have demonstrated decoding results comparable to those achieved by researchers using implanted electrodes.

A paper Contreras-Vidal and colleagues published in the Journal of Neuroscience in March 2010 showed the feasibility of Maryland's EEG-based technology to infer multidimensional natural movement from noninvasive measurements of brain activity. In their two latest studies, Contreras-Vidal and his team have further advanced the development of their EEG brain interface technology, and provided powerful new evidence that it can yield brain computer interface results as good as or better than those from invasive studies, while also requiring minimal training to use.

In a paper published in April in the Journal of Neural Engineering, the Maryland team demonstrated that people wearing the EEG brain cap, could after minimal training control a computer cursor with their thoughts and achieve performance levels comparable to those by subjects using invasive implanted electrode brain computer interface systems. Contreras-Vidal and his co-authors write that this study also shows that compared to studies of other noninvasive brain control interface systems, training time with their system was substantially shorter, requiring only a single 40-minute session.

Source: Science Daily

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Supersconti, supereroi, superconvenienti... È tempo di super e non potevamo farci mancare i superbiscotti per il pc: sono arrivati i supercookie e son tempi superduri se non vuoi far sapere in quali siti vai a curiosare. Per scamparla cerca online (attento però all'info-obesità, la neo-parola grassa di questo mese), ma è veramente dura quando è così facile leggere - nero su bianco - che cosa hai detto su Facebook ieri. O un mese fa. O anche un anno fa!
 

Tutto il Web in PDF

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Dal lontano 2010
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Sorpreso? Bene: per sapere tutto e anche di più scarica in anteprima la rubrica "Web" di Focus 228 e avrai in punta di freccia tutti i link di questa pagina dedicata a Internet (e d'intorni), con le curiosità e le stranezze dalla Rete, i preferiti da non perdere, le pagine di cui non potresti fare a meno e altre di cui non avresti mai sentito la mancanza. E sempre nuove apps (è naturale) per il tuo iPhone e non solo.

Fonte: focus.it

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An amazing study authored by professors D. Mark Anderson (University of Montana) and Daniel Rees (University of Colorado) shows that traffic deaths have been reduced in states where medical marijuana is legalized.


According to their findings, the use of medical marijuana has caused traffic related fatalities to fall by nearly nine percent in states that have legalized medical marijuana (via The Truth About Cars).

The study notes that this is equal to the effect raising the drinking age to 21 had on reducing traffic fatalities.

marijuana

One key factor is the reduction in alcohol consumption. The study finds that there is a direct correlation between the use of marijuana and a reduction in beer sales, especially in the younger folks aged 20-29.

A drop in beer sales supports the theory that marijuana can act as a substitute for liquor.

The study also finds that marijuana has the inverse effect that alcohol does on drivers. Drivers under the influence of alcohol tend to make rash decisions and risky moves, whereas those under the influence of marijuana tend to slow down, make safer choices, and increase following distances.


Source: BusinessInsider.com - Author: Travis Okulski

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“Do you know we are being led to
Slaughters by placid admirals

& that fat slow generals are getting
Obscene on young blood

Do you know we are ruled by t.v.”
 
Ż Jim Morrison, An American Prayer


Last year more military personnel committed suicide than were killed in combat in Iraq and Afghanistan.

According to the Department of Defense, 455 troops died in hostile action, and at least 468 active duty and reserve troops died in suspected suicides.

Guantanamo Bay

It's a growing problem the armed services have been trying to counter for years. So what does the Pentagon, families and all of us have to do, to stop it from happening? VETS Chief of Staff Amit Magdieli discusses.

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... CONTINUA. LEGATURA AICI.


Critici la teoria "pasajului" natural

Ok, sa admitem ca teoria vaccinului oral antipolio nu e adevarata. De ce nu sunt criticate diversele puncte slabe ale teoriei transferului natural? Cine a decis ca teoria transferului poate fi acceptata simplu ca buna, în timp ce teoria vaccinului oral antipolio a fost masacrata? Întâi de toate teoria transferului natural nu clarifica de ce nu exista nici o urma istorica sau sociala despre SIDA înaintea secolului XX…

"Stii, în Africa nu se înregistreaza tot. Probabil au existat epidemii, dar au fost citate, sau au fost confundate cu alte boli."

"Dar milioane de africani au fost deportati ca si sclavi… s-ar fi observat în America!"

"Poate ca virusul a ramas legat de un trib izolat."

"Ba nu. Pentru ca triburile izolate ar trebui sa fie cel putin 7, tinând cont ca acum exista cel putin sapte epidemii diferite în contemporan!"

"În secolul XX avem colonizarea, eliberarea de tabuurile sexuale, urbanizarea… si se stie ca în oras lumea e mai deschisa... si despadurirea care pune în contact mai mult oamenii cu maimutele…"

"Si cum îmi explici distanta genetica?"

"Distanta care?"

Teoria seringilor nesterilizate

"Distanta genetica! Sunt cazuri în care virusul uman este aproape identic cu cel al maimutelor. Dar se pare ca în acele cazuri virusul uman nu este patogen si nu este transmisibil… cum s-ar zice ca pentru a produce boala, virusul maimutelor trebuie sa fie modificat, adaptat la corpul uman. Ce anume a permis virusului sa se adapteze omului?"

"Mmmm… lasa-ma sa ma gândesc… seringile!"

"Seringile?"

"Seringile. Asculta… începând cu sfârsitul celui de al Doilea Razboi Mondial se fabrica si se folosesc tot mai multe seringi de unica folosinta. Dar Africii, de nenumarate ori i-a lipsit aparatura medicala, deci de mai multe ori s-a întâmplat ca seringile de unica folosinta, imposibil de sterilizat, sa fie reutilizate de zeci de ori. Trecând rapid acul seringii de la brat la brat s-a permis virusului sa se adapteze omului si sa provoace SIDA!"

"Deci virusul a trecut de nenumarate ori, bineînteles, de la maimuta la om, dar nu a provocat SIDA niciodata, nici nu s-a transmis. Dupa care, prin utilizarea repetata a acelor s-a transmis virusul ce s-a adaptat corpului uman. Iata o noua teorie! Pare a fi plauzibila... Dar înca o data se baga la mijloc medicina: cum e ca pe aceasta o accepta cu inima senina?"

"Pai, nu este direct vina medicinei, ci a lipsei de echipament medical din tarile în curs de dezvoltare. Este mult mai politically correct."

"Ei da. Este atât de simplu a spune ca e vina saraciei."

Originea Răului - Istoria unei controversate teorii despre originea SIDA. Un documentar teatral de Christian Biasco - Traducerea si adaptarea: Radu Trofin

VA URMA ... LEGATURA AICI

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If so, then this pertains to you.

Members of a University of Arizona Eller College of Management team and a UA alumnus developed a prototype system to detect fake websites. When tested against other existing commercial systems, the team found that its system resulted in effective and more accurate detections of spoof sites – better than a human can.

The team's subsequent article, “Detecting Fake Websites: The Contribution of Statistical Learning Theory" was published last year in an issue of MIS Quarterly, or MISQ. A preeminent peer-reviewed journal in the field of management information systems, MISQ has since been named the article its top paper for 2010.

"Even to get into MISQ is very difficult, and this is probably the first technical paper to receive the Best Paper award," said Hsinchun Chen, the UA Artificial Intelligence Lab director, one of the paper's five authors.

MISQ will formally honor the researchers in Shanghai, China later this year during the International Conference on Information Systems.

"The topic of detecting fake websites and also our computational approach are both considered major contributions. This topic has great relevance to the industry, the society and the citizens in general," said Chen, also the McClelland Professor of Management Information Systems.

"This award is not something just for me, or my lab, but also for our department," he said, adding that the team's eventual goal is technology transfer.

UA alumnus Ahmed Abbasi, now a University of Virginia assistant professor of information technology, is lead author on the paper. Chen served as his dissertation adviser. Other co-authors are UA Eller College's department of management information systems faculty members Zhu Zhang and Jay F. Nunamaker Jr.; and David Zimbra, a doctoral student in the Artificial Intelligence Lab.

For the research, the team used the prototype and several other detection systems to evaluate the authenticity of 900 websites.

It is easy to pick up on a site's authenticity by checking whether the URL contains "http" when it should read "https," when it was last updated, if a security key is missing or if images appear strangely pixelated.

The team found that its system – founded on statistical learning technology, which evaluates a large accumulation of data – was more apt to detect imitation sites and those that were entirely concocted, said Abbasi, who earned his doctoral degree in management information systems from the UA in 2008.

The major difference between the authors’ prototype and the other systems? Their system relied on a tremendously rich set of fraud cues.

The team developed five categories with thousands of cues, finding that the best results were attained when utilizing thousands of highly visible and also deeply embedded cues, such as placement, URL length, the number of links, characters types on the site and how thorough the site's "frequently asked questions" section is detailed, among other features.

The project's origins were born out of the Artificial Intelligence Lab, where Abbasi developed the mathematical formula the team eventually used while working as a project lead and research associate. He continued the work after having taken a faculty position at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

"It creates a greater awareness for a problem that has been around for a while yet still remains an issue as we increasingly move to the Internet for everything – online banking, online health initiatives and medical information," Abbasi said.

Given the pervasive nature of online phishing scams, being able to readily and frequently detect a site's validity is crucial, Abbasi said, also noting research that indicates people are less than 60 percent accurate in detecting fake sites, and other security issues.

"The problem we're looking at is quite big. Fake websites constitute much of the Internet fraud's multi-billion dollar industry, and that is monetary loss…we can’t even quantify the social ramifications," Abbasi said. "That's the whole motivation. It is so profitable for fraudsters, and it is slipping through the cracks."

Today, Chen and more than one dozen of his collaborators are continuing to investigate fake sites. Meanwhile, Abbasi is undertaking an investigation of peoples' abilities to detect fake sites through a grant funded by the National Science Foundation.

Today, Chen and more than one dozen of his collaborators are continuing to investigate fake sites. Meanwhile, Abbasi is undertaking an investigation of users and peoples' abilities to detect fake sites.

Abbasi said developing better detection systems requires improved statistical learning technology that utilize larger quantities of cues. It also is important to dismiss long-held perceptions about how fake sites might and should appear.

"The idea of protecting from the front level has been around for a while," Abbasi said, adding that companies have begun to employ software that better detects fake sites. "But we are not where we need to be, and there is a lot of potential in future development."

Source: PhysOrg

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Cannabis connoisseurs, former hippies, and college kids everywhere have long appreciated marijuana for its seemingly magical effects on mind and body. The fact that it is illegal (at least in the United States), has never stopped people from partaking in a little herbal refreshment. But it isn’t just Phish fans who have argued for the legalization of the popular recreational drug. Legalizing marijuana for medicinal purposes, specifically to alleviate the pain of those afflicted with glaucoma, is a contemporary and fairly widespread cause. But even since the 1950s, scientists have recognized, and pushed for, the antibacterial properties of Cannabis sativa.

Most recently, positive publicity for pot has emerged via a group of Italian and British researchers experimenting with tetrahydrocannabinol — the main active ingredient in marijuana. More commonly known as THC (because, let’s face it, anyone under its influence isn’t going to be able to get that octosyllabic word out of his mouth), the compound and its related compounds have proven themselves effective antibacterial agents.

A team of scientists led by Giovanni Appendino at the University of Eastern Piedmont tested the five most common cannabinoids (a group of substances that are structurally related to THC) and found each one to be effective against several common multiresistant bacterial strains. The findings were published in the Journal of Natural Products, where the team also suggested that cannabinoids without psychotropic properties may be even more useful in fighting off bacterial diseases.

Back in the fifties, scientist didn’t know much about the chemical make up of marijuana. They tested it as an agent against various infections, but their experiments never reached the practical stage. Half a century later, researchers are able to look more closely at the potential medicinal properties of the plant; however, they are still unsure of how exactly the cannabinoids work and how effective they would end up being. More research and experimentation is needed if they expect to transition it into systemic antibiotics. Still, strides are being made. Scientists say THC could be ready for use in the near(er) future as a combatant against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), an often fatal bacteria responsible for difficult-to-treat infections in humans, commonly found in hospitals or jails, where the residents have open wounds, invasive devices, and weakened immune systems. The compound would serve as a topical agent, preventing microbes from colonizing on the skin. Whatever name you choose to call it—pot, reefer, weed, hemp—cannabis could end up being the drug for microbial strains that no other drugs can cure.
That’s one small step for medicine, one giant leap for marijuana.

Source: popsci.com - Author: Rachel Durfee - posted on 09.10.2008

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Stai linistit ca multinationalele farmaceutice producatori de citostatice exorbitant de scumpe, or sa lupte mereu impotriva legalizarii canabisului in scopuri terapeutice ........
14/08/2014 @ 21:16:00
By Petre Gulie
La cannabis e',la medicina
09/08/2014 @ 20:39:16
By Stefano Ferrari
right on!!
12/07/2014 @ 20:07:45
By Brian Barton
Cannabis is the best medicine in nature. Best everything. But shit, thc is important to!
10/07/2014 @ 13:26:01
By Jason Bond
Keys
06/07/2014 @ 02:59:37
By Altan
Thanks I was just looking for a recipe - gotta love the way the Spirit moves
04/07/2014 @ 19:06:54
By Ginamarie Pezzi
unfortunately that is a reality these days - we humans - especially in the west - only want to hear "a" truth that fits our own limited perspective rather than one that is open & is truth in many ...
04/07/2014 @ 18:57:31
By Ginamarie Pezzi


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02/09/2014 @ 6.11.05
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