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Researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have now taken a major step toward creating artificial intelligence -- not in a robot or a silicon chip, but in a test tube. The researchers are the first to have made an artificial neural network out of DNA, creating a circuit of interacting molecules that can recall memories based on incomplete patterns, just as a brain can.

The brain is incredible," says Lulu Qian, a Caltech senior postdoctoral scholar in bioengineering and lead author on the paper describing this work, published in the July 21 issue of the journal Nature. "It allows us to recognize patterns of events, form memories, make decisions, and take actions. So we asked, instead of having a physically connected network of neural cells, can a soup of interacting molecules exhibit brainlike behavior?"

The answer, as the researchers show, is yes.

Consisting of four artificial neurons made from 112 distinct DNA strands, the researchers' neural network plays a mind-reading game in which it tries to identify a mystery scientist. The researchers "trained" the neural network to "know" four scientists, whose identities are each represented by a specific, unique set of answers to four yes-or-no questions, such as whether the scientist was British.

After thinking of a scientist, a human player provides an incomplete subset of answers that partially identifies the scientist. The player then conveys those clues to the network by dropping DNA strands that correspond to those answers into the test tube. Communicating via fluorescent signals, the network then identifies which scientist the player has in mind. Or, the network can "say" that it has insufficient information to pick just one of the scientists in its memory or that the clues contradict what it has remembered. The researchers played this game with the network using 27 different ways of answering the questions (out of 81 total combinations), and it responded correctly each time.

This DNA-based neural network demonstrates the ability to take an incomplete pattern and figure out what it might represent -- one of the brain's unique features. "What we are good at is recognizing things," says coauthor Jehoshua "Shuki" Bruck, the Gordon and Betty Moore Professor of Computation and Neural Systems and Electrical Engineering. "We can recognize things based on looking only at a subset of features." The DNA neural network does just that, albeit in a rudimentary way.

Biochemical systems with artificial intelligence -- or at least some basic, decision-making capabilities -- could have powerful applications in medicine, chemistry, and biological research, the researchers say. In the future, such systems could operate within cells, helping to answer fundamental biological questions or diagnose a disease. Biochemical processes that can intelligently respond to the presence of other molecules could allow engineers to produce increasingly complex chemicals or build new kinds of structures, molecule by molecule.

"Although brainlike behaviors within artificial biochemical systems have been hypothesized for decades," Qian says, "they appeared to be very difficult to realize."

The researchers based their biochemical neural network on a simple model of a neuron, called a linear threshold function. The model neuron receives input signals, multiplies each by a positive or negative weight, and only if the weighted sum of inputs surpass a certain threshold does the neuron fire, producing an output. This model is an oversimplification of real neurons, says paper coauthor Erik Winfree, professor of computer science, computation and neural systems, and bioengineering. Nevertheless, it's a good one. "It has been an extremely productive model for exploring how the collective behavior of many simple computational elements can lead to brainlike behaviors, such as associative recall and pattern completion."

To build the DNA neural network, the researchers used a process called a strand-displacement cascade. Previously, the team developed this technique to create the largest and most complex DNA circuit yet, one that computes square roots.

This method uses single and partially double-stranded DNA molecules. The latter are double helices, one strand of which sticks out like a tail. While floating around in a water solution, a single strand can run into a partially double-stranded one, and if their bases (the letters in the DNA sequence) are complementary, the single strand will grab the double strand's tail and bind, kicking off the other strand of the double helix. The single strand thus acts as an input while the displaced strand acts as an output, which can then interact with other molecules.

Because they can synthesize DNA strands with whatever base sequences they want, the researchers can program these interactions to behave like a network of model neurons. By tuning the concentrations of every DNA strand in the network, the researchers can teach it to remember the unique patterns of yes-or-no answers that belong to each of the four scientists. Unlike with some artificial neural networks that can directly learn from examples, the researchers used computer simulations to determine the molecular concentration levels needed to implant memories into the DNA neural network.

While this proof-of-principle experiment shows the promise of creating DNA-based networks that can -- in essence -- think, this neural network is limited, the researchers say. The human brain consists of 100 billion neurons, but creating a network with just 40 of these DNA-based neurons -- ten times larger than the demonstrated network -- would be a challenge, according to the researchers. Furthermore, the system is slow; the test-tube network took eight hours to identify each mystery scientist. The molecules are also used up -- unable to detach and pair up with a different strand of DNA -- after completing their task, so the game can only be played once. Perhaps in the future, a biochemical neural network could learn to improve its performance after many repeated games, or learn new memories from encountering new situations. Creating biochemical neural networks that operate inside the body -- or even just inside a cell on a Petri dish -- is also a long way away, since making this technology work in vivo poses an entirely different set of challenges.

Beyond technological challenges, engineering these systems could also provide indirect insight into the evolution of intelligence. "Before the brain evolved, single-celled organisms were also capable of processing information, making decisions, and acting in response to their environment," Qian explains. The source of such complex behaviors must have been a network of molecules floating around in the cell. "Perhaps the highly evolved brain and the limited form of intelligence seen in single cells share a similar computational model that's just programmed in different substrates."

"Our paper can be interpreted as a simple demonstration of neural-computing principles at the molecular and intracellular levels," Bruck adds. "One possible interpretation is that perhaps these principles are universal in biological information processing."

The research described in the Nature paper is supported by a National Science Foundation grant to the Molecular Programming Project and by the Human Frontiers Science Program.

Source: ScienceDaily

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Although not as efficient as their sailboat, the fourth upgrade to this 1960s hexagonal building in the Netherlands (hence its name Villa 4.0) does ensure that the building's heating, cooling, and lighting will be achieved with the lowest possible energy consumption while also re-establishing its intimacy with the surrounding green plot. More details about the numerous adaptations applied to this naturally illuminated family home after the jump.

The architects stuck to the existing materials as much as possible though certain interventions, such as upgrading the outer walls and roofs, were necessary, as was insulating the building to improve its thermal efficiency. Some windows were also replaced, and inner walls were gutted to set the gaping living room free. The bedroom floors were replaced with bamboo, and skylights filter throughout the house.

Water is heated by the sun and the home via underfloor heating, as well as a very efficient wood-fired stove that is also used for cooking. All of the incandescent lamps were replaced with LED lighting that uses 90% less energy, punching a serious hole in the home’s overall carbon footprint. And for a final unique touch, a pump was installed to extract water from a nearby brook that is then splashed onto Villa 4.0?s roof, cooling the house down before the water loops back to the brook. We haven’t said much about the garden upgrades, but suffice to say this last renovation is certain to last a very long time.

Source: Dick van Gameren Architecten & InHabitat

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L'enciclopedia libera si è messa il bavaglio. Da ieri sera non è più possibile consultare alcuna voce italiana di Wikipedia. Perché? Per protesta contro il ddl sulle intercettazioni, in discussione in Parlamento. Quando si cerca di accedere a una qualsiasi pagina, si viene indirizzati a un lungo comunicato che spiega le ragioni del blocco.

Anche la popolare enciclopedia rientrerebbe infatti nell'obbligo di rettifica entro 48 ore di un contenuto segnalato da una parte lesa, senza alcun intervento di un giudice ed evitando commenti, previsto dal ddl (maggiori dettagli sul disegno di legge li trovate sul blog del nostro Guido Scorza). Ecco cosa scrivono a Wikipedia:

" Quindi, in base al comma 29, chiunque si sentirà offeso da un contenuto presente su un blog, su una testata giornalistica online e, molto probabilmente, anche qui su Wikipedia, potrà arrogarsi il diritto -indipendentemente dalla veridicità delle informazioni ritenute offensive - di chiedere l'introduzione di una 'rettifica ', volta a contraddire e smentire detti contenuti, anche a dispetto delle fonti presenti. [...]

 

" L'obbligo di pubblicare fra i nostri contenuti le smentite previste dal comma 29, senza poter addirittura entrare nel merito delle stesse e a prescindere da qualsiasi verifica, costituisce per Wikipedia una inaccettabile limitazione della propria libertà e indipendenza: tale limitazione snatura i principi alla base dell'Enciclopedia libera e ne paralizza la modalità orizzontale di accesso e contributo, ponendo di fatto fine alla sua esistenza come l'abbiamo conosciuta fino a oggi". 

Intanto, in Parlamento si cercano di limitare (in parte) i danni, con un emendamento (da parte del deputato Pdl Roberto Cassinelli) che non cancella il dovere di rettificare, ma dà all'online più tempo - 10 giorni - per gestire il contenuto incriminato. Ma il problema della limitazione della libertà in Rete resta, come scrive il nostro blogger Alessandro Longo. E la protesta sul Web monta, considerando che la pagina Facebook Rivogliamo Wikipedia - No alla legge bavaglio in poche ore ha già guadagnato quasi 150mila fan.

Fonte: wired.it

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... CONTINUA. LEGATURA AICI.

Vaccinurile antipolio si originea SIDA

“Tinând cont ca nenumarate mii de doze din vaccinul Salk produse în anii ’50 erau contaminate cu SV40, un virus al maimutelor, ne întrebam daca tesutul de rinichi de maimuta nu ar putea fi sursa virusului SIDA la om” .

Astfel au scris Lecatsas si Alexander, doi virusologi sud-africani, într-o revista sud-africana în 1989. Daca maimutele utilizate pentru vaccinuri erau infectate cu SIV, nu s-ar fi putut observa deoarece maimutele sunt asimptomatice, neprezentând nici un semn ce ar putea indica daca sunt infectate si doar în 1985 a fost dezvoltat un test pentru individuarea prezentei acestui tip de virus.

“Cu toate ca este simplu sa presupunem si chiar mai dificil sa demonstram ca vaccinul antipolio ar fi la originea infectiei cu HIV la om, am fi tot pe atât de naivi sa ignoram posibilitatea”.

Realizati ce insinueaza acestia? E o ipoteza înfricosatoare: se interogheaza daca lupta împotriva poliomielitei, una dintre cele mai mari cuceriri ale medicinei moderne, a sfârsit prin a provoca cea mai mare tragedie sanitara a erei contemporane.

Nu stiu câta pricepere aveti cu numerele tragediei: SIDA a cauzat pâna acum moartea a 30 de milioane de persoane. Daca sicriele ar fi alineate unul dupa altul s-ar construi o pasarela în jurul Pamântului. Mor de SIDA 3 milioane de persoane pe an, o persoana la fiecare 10 secunde. În unele tari africane s-a ajuns la diminuarea sperantei de viata de 40 de ani. Daca nu se face nimic, acolo, un copil care se naste astazi va muri probabil de SIDA, înainte de a împlini 30 de ani. Poate cea mai mare catastrofa sanitara cunoscuta de umanitate. Crezi ca e un lucru ce poate fi acceptat fara probleme? Nu, de fapt raspunsul urma imediat în aceeasi revista.

Periculoasa imprudenta si speculatie nestiintifica

“Sa insinuam ca vaccinurile atenuate antipolio ar putea contine virusul imunodeficientei maimutelor (SIV) (…) ar fi o imprudenta periculoasa si o speculatie nestiintifica. Studiile efectuate de catre noi si altii nu au reusit sa izoleze nici un SIV din tesuturile de rinichi de maimuta proveniente de la maimute seropozitive. (…) În acest context, scrisori ca cea a lui Lecatsas (…) servesc doar pentru a dezinforma, confunda si pacali, nefiind de nici un ajutor eforturilor noastre si internationale pentru atingerea obiectivului celei de a 41-a Reuniune a OMS, si anume eliminarea mondiala a poliomielitei...”

Speculatie nestiintifica. Periculoasa insinuare. Întrebare: daca este o speculatie nestiintifica, de ce au facut testele? Pentru ca în 1985, Organizatia Mondiala a Sanatatii, fara prea multa publicitate, a testat vaccinurile produse din 1970 pâna astazi pentru a controla prezenta SIV. Nu l-a gasit. Si vaccinurile înainte de 1970?

Dupa care s-a efectuat si un alt test în Japonia. Ohhttaaa!!! Eu glumesc, dar Ohta e într-adevar numele cercetatorului japonez, care luând doua maimute seropozitive a produs vaccinul urmarind procedeul modern de productie. Rezultatul era linistitor deoarece SIV se pierdea deja de la primii pasi, multumita mai ales folosirii unei anumite substante: tripsina. Deci vaccinurile antipolio moderne sunt sigure. Dar acelea produse cu tehnicile initiale de productie?

Articolul continea o avertizare: “nu vor trebui utilizate la prepararea vaccinurilor maimute infectate în mod natural cu SIV”. Cum s-ar zice, da, noi nu am gasit urme de SIV, dar ascultati-ne, este mai bine sa nu riscam.

Dupa care o periculoasa insinuare... dar articolul nu a fost tocmai scris într-o revista de muzica rock! Daca nu îsi fac aceste întrebari oamenii de stiinta, atunci cine?

Lecatsas si Alexander nu au acceptat critica scriind iarasi: “Ar fi naiv sa ignoram substantiala posibilitate statistica a unei infectii între specii, prin intermediul a milioane si milioane de doze de vaccin, pe o perioada de 40 de ani. Credem în libertatea de expresie si în schimbul de idei ca un ingredient necesar progresului stiintific. Mai mult credem ca mai devreme sau mai târziu, întrebarile enuntate vor trebui discutate si, speram, combatute.”

Originea Răului - Istoria unei controversate teorii despre originea SIDA. Un documentar teatral de Christian Biasco - Traducerea si adaptarea: Radu Trofin

VA URMA ... LEGATURA AICI

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Whose Oil Can You Trust?

I'm here today because I am very disturbed about what is presently happening in North America. And I feel that the public need to be aware of what is truly going on so they can make informed decisions when purchasing hemp oil to treat themselves.

First off I want the public to know that I have no involvement with anyone who is supplying oil, and I have never received a penny from any of them. Also at present I have no involvement with foundations or any other organizations. The only thing I am connected with is the Phoenix Tears website and nothing else.

Until recently I was connected with the Phoenix Tears Foundation headed up by Janet Sweeney that is presently forming in Colorado. Janet has some top notch people like Dr. Bob Melamede involved and I certainly think this group is truly on the up and up.

The only reason I have withdrawn from this group was because due to the situation I am currently in, I cannot even enter the US. So for me that means there is no hands on and I really felt that I could play no active role, so I withdrew. Also at this time it's more than I can do to just keep up with the emails we receive every day that come to our website.

So at the present to avoid further stress I thought it might be best to just stick with our website until things settle down a bit.

What's happening right now is simply this. Every Tom Dick and Harry out there it seems is supplying hemp oil to people seeking help. But at present there is not quality control so in reality in most cases people have no idea what they are buying.

Unfortunately for me, many suppliers are using my name and the term Phoenix Tears to sell their substandard products and guess who gets all the complaints. The oil is everything I have told the public it is, but it must be produced from high grade starting material and it must be done in the proper way.

Unfortunately, a great number of suppliers at present seem to care little about the patient's health and well-being. So they are producing low-grade oils and supply them to the public simply so they can fill their pockets.
Even worse still some people and groups around them are literally scamming patients out of vast amounts of money. I don't like to bring up people's names but there is one such group headed by Char Richardson in Colorado whose activities must cease.

So I feel that it is my duty to warn the public about this group, since I have received many complaints about their business practices. I believe they call their group Phoenix Tears Plus but there also many others who are doing the same thing.

That's the reason I tell the public it's best to produce your own oil at this time, until we have some standards in place. If you produce the oil yourself, at least then you know you have the real thing and to a dying patient, the proper oil can mean the difference between life and death.
The public must realize that all hemp is not created equal, the medicinal qualities from strain to strain can vary a great deal so the proper strains must be used. Also low-grade strains and clippings may produce a decent treatment for some skin conditions. But if you are trying to treat someone with a serious condition like cancer, low-grade oils just don't cut it, only the best will do.

These are trying times for us all, but soon things will settle down and the public will have their medicine. It's just a matter of time now, for there is no way for the system to put a stop to the truth from spreading. Properly produced hemp oil is the greatest medicine on this earth, and soon hemp will again take its rightful place in mainstream medicinal use.

Rick Simpson
August 2010

--- --- ---

AN IMPORTANT MESSAGE: Fighting The Damage Caused By Radiation

After the horrible earthquake in Japan, that has caused all this damage to many of the nuclear reactors that are operating in that country, radiation is now spreading worldwide. With high levels of radiation being released into the atmosphere on a continuous basis, it will have a devastating effect on the lives of most living creatures. But once again if used properly high quality hemp oil can provide a solution that will be of great help to mankind in alleviating this situation. For years I have been telling the public, that every man woman and child on this earth, should be taking small doses of this oil everyday to maintain good health. With all the radiation that is now entering our atmosphere, it is basically urgent, that we now all start ingesting this oil as soon as possible to undo the damage this radiation will cause. Through my experience with the use of this oil, I have found that there is nothing more effective or more harmless that can reduce the damage caused by radiation. I have seen patients that were suffering from cancer who were badly damaged by the effects of radiation treatments, that were able to completely eliminate the damage in a short time. Some who have come to me that had radiation treatments, were burned so badly by its effects that their shin looked like red leather. After ingesting the oil treatment their skin went back to its normal healthy state and the radiation burns disappeared completely. If the oil can do this for someone that was badly damaged by such so called medical treatments, would its use not be effective to combat the effects of the radiation, now emanating from Japan.

There are thousands of reasons why the medicinal use of the cannabis plant, should never have been restricted in the first place. But now with the menace that all this escaping radiation presents, we would have to be insane to turn our backs on the use of hemp extracts to help us all deal with this situation. I truly feel sorry for the misery the people of Japan are now going through and if nothing can be done to stop the radiation from escaping, they may loose their homeland entirely. Don't be fooled by government double talk, radiation is an invisible but dangerous threat to the well being of us all and only a complete fool would try to say otherwise. The wondrous medicinal effects of properly produced oil from the cannabis hemp plant are finally being recognized once more worldwide. This is just one more reason, we must begin to start growing this plant on a grand scale and it is time that we all told our governments that we have had enough of their nonsense. Our very lives and the lives of coming generations, plus the well being of many other species are at stake and its now up to us, to determine what future mankind is to have.

Best Wishes,

Rick Simpson


My name is Rick Simpson. I have been providing people with instructions on how to make Hemp Oil medicines for about 8 years. The results have been nothing short of amazing. Throughout man's history hemp has always been known as the most medicinal plant in the world. Even with this knowledge hemp has always been used as a political and religious football.

The current restrictions against hemp were put in place and maintained, not because hemp is evil or harmful, but for big money to make more big money, while we suffer and die needlessly. Look at a proposal such as this; if we were allowed to grow hemp in our back yards and cure our own illnesses, what do you think the reaction of the pharmaceutical industry would be to such a plan? Many large pharmaceutical companies that still exist today sold hemp based medicines in the 1800's and early 1900's. They knew then what I have recently found out. Hemp oil if produced properly is a cure-all that the pharmaceutical industry can't patent.

Two years a go I contacted the Liberals, the Conservatives and the New Democratic Party about this situation. I also provided them with evidence to backup what I was saying. No one lifted a finger, in most cases I was lucky to get a reply. I contacted the R.C.M.P. along with many other organizations and Public Interest TV shows, with little or no response.

Why are all these people trying to avoid such a simple truth? If I am in some way wrong in what I have been saying then I invite the system to come and prove it. I would be happy to put on a public demonstration of what this oil can do. That would answer this question for the Canadian public once and for all. It seems unbelievable that we have a law in Canada that will not allow us to cure our own diseases with a natural herbal remedy.

While much of the evidence for the effectiveness of Hemp is reports from patients and doctors, it is important to realize that this reporting leads to restrictions of drugs and their withdrawal from the market. Such was the case with doctors reporting the birth defects from Thalidomide and heart problems with the Fen-Phen combination of drugs. Further reports led to new uses for Thalidomide as a drug to treat leprosy rather than morning sickness. Anecdotal evidence (reports and observation by patients or doctors) usually indicates to a doctor that a treatment or drug should be altered, discontinued or changed.
In addition to the evidence, much research has been done and a list of a few of the researchers and their papers or publications is here. [Penicillin was approved for use with less experience and data than is available on the effectiveness of Hemp - only six patients].
The results of the cases can be readily replicated by any practitioner, medical or otherwise, anywhere, to cure malignant melanomas and more importantly, save lives. The topical application of hemp oil salves or balms helps to control or cure various skin conditions. Taken orally, the oil tends to seek out and destroy cancer cells in the body, but as with any drug, too much can cause side effects; most notable with hemp oil is drowsiness. Unlike opiates and their derivatives, hemp oil is not addictive.

For those who may find it incredible that the medical establishment would ignore or even disdain such research we remind the reader that the history of the medical establishment includes examples of mule-like stubbornness, incompetence, mediocrity, greed, arrogance, and stupidity. Consider the case of Dr. Ignas Semmelweis:

In 1847, Dr. Semmelweis, a respected Hungarian physician who was concerned about the high mortality rate of women giving birth in hospital, instituted a procedure at one hospital whereby doctors washed and disinfected their hands before delivering babies. Immediately, the mortality rate dropped from THIRTY percent to near zero. Seven other hospitals followed suit with similar results.

The European medical establishment recognized Dr. Semmelweis's achievement by blocking his applications for further research funds, vilifying and ostracizing him, and, ultimately, causing him to lose his prestigious positions at maternity hospitals. In America, the newly formed American Medical Association added insult to injury by threatening to revoke the license of any doctor caught washing his hands. Dr. Semmelweis was so distressed that women continued to die that he suffered a mental breakdown that eventually led to his death in 1865.

Don't expect a doctor working inside the system to buck the system. The risks are still too great! The advice she or he offers you is controlled by the large medical industry that makes its money from expensive cancer fighting drugs and treatments. It is an industry that doesn't look favorably on natural supplements or other cancer treatments that they cannot patent or make a large profit from. Years from now the current conventional cancer treatments used by doctors will on the whole be viewed in the same light that we view the old medical practice of blood letting to cure illnesses.

Rick Simpson

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By Admin (from 07/12/2011 @ 17:00:04, in en - Global Observatory, read 1098 times)

When Rick Simpson first announced he had cured cancer by using his home-grown cannabis oil, it would have been fair to expect fanfares and Nobel prizes at the very least.

Image

Rick Simpson and his home grown cancer treatment

With Cancer expected to directly impact on 1 in 3 of our lives at some stage, it is in its self a huge proportion of the entire healthcare spend. So to suggest here was a substance which could reduce tumors for just a few pence/cents a dose, was big news. Or so you would have thought.

What actually happened beggars belief.
Rick Simpson was arrested, branded a snake oil peddlar and cast off from his native Canadian homeland, forced to live in the US under the threat of re-arrest should he return to Canada.

Today however its been announced the cannabis extract marketed by UK based biotech GW Pharmaceuticals is expected to achieve universal approval in the treatment of (wait for it) cancer.
Sativex was initially brought to market as a treatment for the spasticity associated with Multiple Sclerosis. But as more evidence becomes available its becoming apparent Rick Simpson was onto something with his cancer treatment.

And with sales for the treatment of cancer expected to double the Ł150 million pounds it made as a MS treatment when licensing is completed, that would be a fair assumption.

So are the cannabis laws really in place to 'save our children'? Or is there another, entirely more sinister agenda in play?

Read the entire Rick Simpson story, including step-by-step instructions on how to make your own cancer medicine at http://phoenixtears.ca/

Source: Cannazine Cannabis News

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By Admin (from 07/12/2011 @ 14:08:08, in en - Global Observatory, read 1853 times)

It's no wonder that the judges of the Building to Building Pedestrian Bridge International Challenge awarded this mind-blowing, shape-shifting helix bridge by Sanzpont first place. Featuring a tensile fabric that allows the bridge to move as visitors walk across it, it also captures energy from the sun. If that's not enough goodness for our strictest technophiles, check this out: the bridge also lights up at night with linear LED technology, and purifies the air in its immediate environment.

How does a moving bridge produce energy? With foldable photovoltaic panels of course; but Sanzpont, which has been featured on Inhabitat several times in the past, is never satisfied with the bare minimum, so they raised this design’s artistic appeal and sustainbability a few notches.

A bridge with many personalities, the daytime energy-generator acts as a night time art exhibit when linear LED lights illuminate the bridge, giving it a low-energy, futuristic glow. And then, just in case we become too techy and alienated from nature, Sanzpont has incorporated plants into the design to ensure that the bridge would also purify the air in its surrounding environment. This final touch rounds off the design’s low environmental impact, albeit at what must be a staggering financial cost. Even so, Sanzpont has knocked our socks off once again with their incredible vision.

Source: Sanzpont Arquitectura & Inhabitat

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‘As of the year 2000, there were seven countries without a Rothschild-owned Central Bank:

Afghanistan, Iraq, Sudan, Libya, Cuba, North Korea, Iran

Then along came the convenient terror of 9-11 and soon Iraq and Afghanistan had been added to the list, leaving only five countries without a Central Bank owned by the Rothschild Family:

Sudan, Libya, Cuba, North Korea, Iran

We all know how fast the Central Bank of Benghazi was set up.

The only countries left in 2011 without a Central Bank owned by the Rothschild Family are:

Cuba, North Korea, Iran.

And these mono-maniacal speculators in the west, via their nuke-weaponed ally Israel, are blatantly gagging to get that “Central Bank of Iran” set up… you know it.’

Source: Mike Philbin via David Icke

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Le prime pagine dei giornali aprono con la notizia di una sentenza epocale: la Corte d’Assise di Perugia ha assolto Amanda Knox e Raffaele Sollecito dall’accusa di omicidio di Meredith Kercher, la studentessa inglese trovata morta nel 2007 nel suo appartamento di Perugia, dove si trovava per un soggiorno studio. La sentenza ribalta il verdetto di primo grado del 2009, che aveva condannato i due giovani rispettivamente a 26 e 25 anni di carcere, ed è stata emessa con una motivazione ben precisa: le prove di colpevolezza non sono affidabili.

I legali della famiglia di Meredith hanno basato l’ accusa su prove biologiche: frammenti di dna su un coltello ritrovato nella cucina di Sollecito e su un gancio strappato dal reggiseno che indossava Meredith. Dai test di laboratorio emerse che il dna isolato dalla lama del coltello combaciava con quello della ragazza uccisa, mentre quello prelevato dal manico apparteneva alla Knox. D’altra parte, dalle analisi venne fuori che il dna ritrovato sul fermaglio del reggiseno di Meredith era quello di Sollecito. Prove schiaccianti (almeno così sembrava) con cui l’accusa aveva chiesto, e ottenuto, l'incarcerazione dei due ragazzi.

Dal canto suo, la difesa ha sempre sostenuto l’ inaffidabilità dei test di dna che avevano portato alla condanna in primo grado dei suoi assistiti. Per prima cosa, gli avvocati della Knox e di Sollecito sostenevano che la quantità di dna ritrovato sul coltello e sul reggiseno fosse  troppo poca per permettere un’analisi accurata. Secondo, avanzavano timori di contaminazioni. In altre parole, la difesa aveva sostenuto che il dna isolato dal coltello e dal reggiseno fosse stato contaminato da materiale genetico estraneo (per esempio quello degli agenti che avevano raccolto e maneggiato le presunte prove del delitto).

Per analizzare il materiale genetico ritrovato sulla scena di un crimine, si usa un metodo standard: il dna viene amplificato (cioè se ne fanno più copie) ed esaminato con elettroforesi. Si ottiene così un grafico costituito da una serie di picchi, la cui altezza permette di determinare quanti frammenti di un certo tipo di dna sono presenti nel campione analizzato. Insieme, questi picchi costituiscono un’ impronta genetica unica per ciascun individuo. Per scongiurare il rischio che qualche picco venga fuori da dna estraneo, la maggior parte dei laboratori statunitensi non prende in considerazione quelli al di sotto di un certo standard, chiamato soglia di unità di fluorescenza (Rfu), pari a 50. “ Ma la maggior parte dei picchi usciti fuori dall’analisi del dna ritrovato sul coltello era sotto la soglia di 50”, ha detto Greg Hampikian, un ricercatore della Boise State University, in Usa.

Hampikian fu uno degli esperti forensi che, nel 2009, firmò una lettera aperta contro la condanna della Knox e di Sollecito, sostenendo appunto che le prove non erano sufficienti a stabilire il coinvolgimento dei due ragazzi.

Come scritto nella lettera, se c’è sospetto di contaminazioni, l’analisi del campione di dna deve essere ripetuta, cosa che non è mai stata fatta. Inoltre, un test chimico condotto per rilevare la presenza di sangue sul coltello ha dato esito negativo. Ma se non ci sono globuli rossi, dicono gli esperti, come è possibile che ci siano altre cellule da cui estrarre sufficiente dna da analizzare? Anche le prove del reggiseno sembrano inconcludenti, dal momento che le impronte genetiche impresse sono un mix di dna di diverse persone, e Sollecito può aver lasciato il proprio in modi del tutto innocenti. Infine, il dna della Knox e di Sollecito non è stato trovato da nessuna altra parte (né vestiti né mobili), mentre quello di Rudy Guede è stato trovato ovunque. E infatti, l’ivoriano è l’unico a rimanere in carcere con una condanna di 16 anni per concorso in omicidio. Per ora.

Ma i dubbi restano. “ La sentenza, dal punto di vista scientifico, non ha alcun senso. Il dna c’è ed è inequivocabile. C’è da capire perché è lì, chi ce l’ha messo, ma non si può dire che non sia sufficiente’, spiega a Wired.it Giuseppe Novelli, genetista e preside della Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia dell’Università di Tor Vergata di Roma e consulente per la Procura. Novelli ha fatto tre ricorsi alla Corte. Il primo trattava la supposta contaminazione del dna: “ La polizia aveva dimostrato che i campioni non sono inquinati e la Corte ha dovuto accettare il ricorso. Ora l’hanno buttata sulla quantità, ma lo standard di cui parlano anche gli americani, di 50 Rfu, non ha senso. Basti pensare che il Ris di Roma usa come limite 35 Rfu. Non si può buttare via una prova solo per una questione di quantità, se la qualità c’è. In ogni caso, se anche volessimo escludere il coltello, come la mettiamo con il fermaglio, dove la soglia viene superata?”.

Gli altri due ricorsi, respinti, riguardavano un’altra traccia sul coltello, non analizzata perché ritenuta troppo piccola, e l’analisi biostatistica sul profilo del dna, per stabilire quanto è probabile l’appartenenza. “ Anche nel caso della traccia non analizzata si è chiamata in causa la quantità, ma dire che è ‘troppo poca ’ ma non ha alcun senso. Prima la si analizzi, si veda di che si tratta, come è qualitativamente e poi si può discutere di quantità. Anche perché il ‘troppo poco ’ dipende dalla competenza e dalla bravura dell’operatore che esegue l’analisi", continua Novelli: " Se guardiamo i curricula, pubblici, dei periti scelti per il caso Knox, salta all’occhio che non sono esperti, tanto che non hanno pubblicazioni a riguardo. Quel che è poco per alcuni, non lo è per altri: esistono laboratori, in Italia e all’estero, in grado di analizzare questo dna, come esistono esperti che possono eseguire le analisi statistiche che non state fatte”.

Fonte: wired.it

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By Admin (from 07/12/2011 @ 10:40:24, in en - Science and Society, read 1661 times)

monsantoworstcompany2011 210x131 Monsanto Declared Worst Company of 2011Biotech giant Monsanto has been declared the Worst Company of 2011 by NaturalSociety for threatening both human health and the environment. The leader in genetically modified seeds and crops, Monsanto is currently responsible for 90 percent of the genetically engineered seed on the United States market. Outside of GM seeds, Monsanto is also the creator of the best-selling herbicide Roundup, which has spawned over 120 million hectacres of herbicide-resistant superweeds while damaging much of the soil. Despite hard evidence warning against the amplified usage of genetically modified crops, biopesticides, and herbicides, Monsanto continues to disregard all warning signs.

In a powerful review of 19 studies analyzing the dangers of GMO crops such as corn and soybeans, researchers revealed some shocking information regarding the safety of these popular food staples. Researchers found that consumption of GMO corn or soybeans may lead to significant organ disruptions in rats and mice – particularly in the liver and kidneys. This is particularly concerning due to the fact that 93 percent of U.S. soybeans are known to be genetically modified. Ignoring this evidence, Monsanto continues to expand their genetic manipulation.

Monsanto’s Genetic Manipulation of Nature

Outside of genetically modifying crops, Monsanto has also created genetically modified crops containing Bt. Bt is a toxin incorporated in GMO crops that are intended to kill different insects, however Bt usage has subsequently spawned insect populations which are resistant to the biopesticide. After being exposed to Bt, many insect populations actually mutated to resist the biopesticide. So far at least 8 insect populations have developed resistance, with 2 populations resistant to Bt sprays and at least 6 species resistant to Bt crops as a whole. Farmers are therefore forced to use even more pesticides to combat the resistant bugs.

What is the answer to this problem, according to Monsanto? To further genetically modify the Bt crop to make it a super-pesticide, killing the resistant insects.

Tests, however, have concluded that further modified Bt toxin crop provided ‘little or no advantage’ in tackling the insects, despite extensive time and funding put into the research. It seems that Monsanto’s solution to everything is to further modify it into oblivion, even in the face of evidence proving this method to be highly inefficient. The research shows that this will undoubtedly lead to insects that are resistant to the most potent forms of Bt and other modified toxins, resulting in the use of even more excessive amounts of pesticides in order to combat pests.

Superweeds Infesting Over 120 Million Hectacres of Farmland

Thanks to Monsanto’s best-selling herbicide Roundup, farms across the world are experiencing the emergence of herbicide-resistant superweeds. The heavily resistant weeds have an immunity to glyphosate, an herbicide that Roundup contains. These resistant weeds currently cover over 4.5 million hectares in the United States alone, though experts estimate the world-wide land coverage to have reached at least 120 million hectares by 2010. The appearance of these superweeds is being increasingly documented in Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Europe and South Africa.

Of course, once again, the resistant weeds are so resistant to roundup that they require excessive amounts of herbicides. It is no surprise that the company is refusing to accept responsibility for the escalating cost of combating the weeds, stating that “Roundup agricultural warranties will not cover the failure to control glyphosate resistant weed populations.”

The World Says No to Monsanto

France, Hungary, and Peru are a few of the countries that have decided to take a stand against Monsanto. Hungary actually went as far as to destroy 1000 acres of maize found to have been grown with genetically modified seeds, according to Hungary deputy state secretary of the Ministry of Rural Development Lajos Bognar.  Peru has also taken a stand for health freedom, passing a monumental 10 year ban on genetically modified foods. Amazingly, Peru’s Plenary Session of the Congress made the decision despite previous governmental pushes for GM legalization. The known and unknown dangers of GMO crops seem to supersede even executive-level governmental directives.

Anibal Huerta, President of Peru’s Agrarian Commission, said the ban was needed to prevent the ”danger that can arise from the use of biotechnology.”

France is the latest nation to say no to Monsanto’s GM corn maize, even in light of an overturned ban. It all began when France’s State Council overturned the ban on Monsanto’s GMO maize stating that it was not sufficiently justified. The organization then attempted to justify its decision by saying that the government did not give enough evidence to justify a ban. Under law, an EU country can only unilaterally ban a genetically modified strain if it can scientifically prove it is a risk to the health of humans, animals, or the integrity of the environment.

Even after the ban was overturned, it surfaced that French legislatures were planning to launch new restrictions regarding the use of Monsanto’s 810 maize on French soil. Even Nicolas Sarkozy, the current president of the French Republic, voiced his opposition to Monsanto’s GMO maize:

“The French government keeps and will keep its opposition against the cultivation of the Monsanto 810 maize on our soil,” Sarkozy said.

Worst Company of 2011

In nominating Monsanto the Worst Company of 2011 we are hoping to raise awareness over the threat that Monsanto poses to human health and the environment. Genetically modified organisms will only continue to threaten all living creatures if not stopped. It is through spreading the word that real change will come about, and declaring Monsanto the Worst Company of 2011 is a great way to highlight all of their reckless actions.

 

Explore More:

  1. Monsanto Worst Company of 2011 Declaration Posted on Reuters, Yahoo, and More
  2. Monsanto’s Roundup Spawns Superweeds Consuming Over 120 Million Hectares
  3. Merck vs Monsanto | Fighting for the Worst Company Award
  4. Flashback: Forbes Magazine Declared Monsanto Company of the Year
  5. EPA Finds Monsanto’s GMO Corn Ineffective, Creating Resistant Rootworms

Source: http://naturalsociety.com

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