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GW Pharmaceuticals announced that it has been issued a Notice of Allowance from the U.S. Patent Office for a patent application involving the use of THC and CBD, the two main chemicals in marijuana, for treating gliomas.

Once a patent application is deemed a genuine invention, the Patent Office sends a Notice of Allowance that outlines the fees involved with final approval.

Specifically, the company provides this description of the patent:

"The subject patent specifically covers a method for treating glioma in a human using a combination of cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) wherein the cannabinoids are in a ratio of from 1:1 to 1:20 (THC:CBD) with the intent to reduce cell viability, inhibit cell growth or reduce tumor volume."

Filed in 2009, GW's patent application lists Otsuka Pharmaceutical as a collaborator and initially claimed the invention of the "use of a combination of cannabinoids in the manufacture of a medicament for use in the treatment of cancer."

However, it's likely that the application was revised since then to be more specific in its claims, including the ratio of THC to CBD used and the type of cancer treated.

Indeed, the use of cannabis and cannabis-derived chemicals to fight a wide range of cancers has long been suggested by pre-clinical research as well as anecdotal reports.

On the other hand, the first clinical trial to investigate these cancer treatments only began in november 2013, launched by GW Pharmaceuticals for their cannabis drug Sativex.

The trial investigates Sativex in combination with the standard chemotherapy drug temozolomide, and involves 20 patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive and rare form of brain cancer.

GW Pharmaceuticals also announced in November 2013 that it had begun human trials of a CBD-rich cannabis drug for the treatment of pediatric epilepsy.

Source: LeafScience

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The work is being led by Dutch chemist and nanoparticle expert Willem Mulder, PhD, who has served as director of the Nanomedicine Laboratory at Mount Sinai since founding it in 2006.

Dr. Mulder and his team specialize in the use of nanoparticles in heart disease, and have recently taken an interest in the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids – a class of compounds found in marijuana.

Since 2005, pre-clinical evidence has shown that cannabinoids can slow the progression of atherosclerosis – a disease of the arteries that underlies various heart conditions – in mice.

Cannabinoids appear to be a promising treatment because of their anti-inflammatory properties. However, research in humans faces a number of barriers.

Dr. Mulder and his team believe that creating nano-drugs from cannabinoids may help to overcome one of the largest of these barriers: the 'high.'

Dr. Mulder has previously shown that nanoparticles, which are composed of an outer layer of fatty molecules, possess a natural attraction to the atherosclerotic plaque that accumulates on the inner walls of blood vessels.

By delivering cannabinoids via nanoparticles, Dr. Mulder says the drugs will never have to reach the brain, thereby avoiding any psychoactive effects.

Dr. Mulder told AD.nl in a recent interview that he hopes to start the first human trials sometime in the next 5 years. But in total, he says it could take 15 years for the therapy to reach the clinic.

Funding is another major obstacle of his research. In order to raise support for his work, Dr. Mulder has partnered with a team of Dutch filmmakers that are documenting his progress.

Led by Gert van Kempen, the High On Nano project will release a series of short films that will help bring the research to the public eye. They plan to raise €30,000 in order to begin production of the first episode by Spring 2014.

Source: AD.nl via LeafScience

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One of the most common causes of erectile dysfunction is high cholesterol, which can clog blood vessels and weaken blood flow to the penis. Over time, it may also result in abnormal tissue build up, leading to permanent dysfunction.

But new findings published in the journal Clinical & Developmental Immunology explain how marijuana may help.

By targeting specific pathways related to marijuana, researchers from Switzerland were able to reduce erectile-related damage in mice with high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia). These marijuana pathways, called CB2 receptors, are present in many parts of the body, including tissues of the penis.

"In summary, CB2 activation decreased histological features, which were associated with erectile dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic mice."

After three weeks of treatment, tissue samples taken from the mice showed lower levels of fibrosis (abnormal tissue build up) and other cholesterol-related injuries, compared to mice that were left untreated.

Though still in its early stages, the research is promising and helps shed light on the ongoing debate over marijuana and sexual function. Up till now, studies have mostly focused on marijuana's short-term effects, and have provided conflicting results.

The only research conducted in human subjects suggests that marijuana may have aphrodisiac-like effects. However, some pre-clinical evidence shows that another marijuana pathway, the CB1 receptor, may interfere with the ability to achieve an erection.

While the latest findings suggest that marijuana might offer long-term prevention against erectile dysfunction, the authors state that more research is needed to confirm the results.

The study received funding from the Brazilian Swiss Joint Research Program, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Novartis Foundation and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPQ)

Source: LeafScience

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While many still debate the potential for marijuana to cause schizophrenia, researchers at Harvard Medical School say there has "yet to be conclusive evidence that cannabis use may cause psychosis."

Their latest study, published in the journal Schizophrenia Research, adds support to the role of genetic factors in schizophrenia, and that marijuana use alone does not increase the risk of developing the disorder.

"In summary, we conclude that cannabis does not cause psychosis by itself. In genetically vulnerable individuals, while cannabis may modify the illness onset, severity and outcome, there is no evidence from this study that it can cause the psychosis."

The team, led by Lynn DeLisi, MD, Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, compared the family histories of 108 schizophrenia patients and 171 individuals without schizophrenia to determine whether cannabis use was a factor in developing the disorder.

They found that a family history of schizophrenia increased the risk of developing schizophrenia, regardless of whether or not an individual used cannabis.

The authors say further studies should investigate whether marijuana can interact with genetic factors to affect the age at which schizophrenia develops. However, the latest findings provide enough evidence for Dr. DeLisi and her team to conclude that cannabis "is unlikely to be the cause of illness."

Interestingly, the authors also point out that different types of marijuana may play a role in the outcome of schizophrenia.

"The amount of THC is particularly of concern, whereas CBD is the component that is thought to have medicinal value even in schizophrenia."

Indeed, although THC is known to have psychosis-like effects, there is growing evidence that CBD can counter the effects of THC, and may even be useful as a treatment for schizophrenia.

The study received funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

Source: LeafScience

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Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School conducted a study comparing the psychoactive effects of Marinol (scientific name: dronabinol) – a THC pill used to treat nausea and weight loss in AIDS and cancer – with smoked marijuana.

Published in The Clinical Journal Of Pain, the team concluded that both forms of cannabis treatment have similar psychoactive effects.

 

"These findings imply that in our laboratory environment, dronabinol caused a 'high' similar to smoking marijuana when used for pain management."

Marinol was given to a group of 30 chronic pain patients who were also on opioid therapy. Their measurements were compared with 20 healthy subjects who received marijuana in joint form.

The study involved three separate laboratory visits, where participants were given the drugs and asked to complete a self-rated assessment commonly used to measure psychoactivity.

Although psychoactivity scores came back the same, the researchers did notice a difference in the time it took for effects to peak. The effects of marijuana peaked after 30 minutes, while Marinol's peak happened at around 2 hours.

The researchers suggest that a delayed peak may make Marinol less abuse-prone than smoked marijuana.

On the other hand, medical marijuana can be administered in edible form, which many say offers a similar delay. A recent study also suggests that patients who've tried different forms of marijuana prefer the whole plant over pharmaceutical preparations.

Nevertheless, the authors believe that increasing interest in cannabis-based medicine warrants further research on its abuse potential.

The study received funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Source: LeafScience

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Published last month in the open-access journal PeerJ, investigators at the University of Reading say the findings strengthen support for chemicals in marijuana as seizure treatments.

"These results provide the first molecular confirmation of behaviourally observed effects of the non-psychoactive, anticonvulsant cannabinoid, CBDV, upon chemically (pentylenetetrazole)-induced seizures and serve to underscore its suitability for clinical development."

CBD (cannabidiol) and CBDV (cannabidivarin) have both shown anti-seizure potential in animal studies, but human trials have so far only involved CBD.

Using rat models, the researchers found that CBDV could suppress not only seizure activity, but the expression of specific epilepsy-related genes as well.

The team focused on a set of genes that are significantly increased in epilepsy and are thought to contribute to the disorder.

"Clear correlations between seizure severity and mRNA expression were observed for these genes in the majority of brain regions of CBDV + PTZ (pentylenetetrazole) treated animals and mRNA expression of these genes was suppressed in the majority of brain regions examined from the CBDV responder subgroup."

While the results can't confirm that gene suppression is directly responsible for CBDV's anti-seizure effect, the authors conclude that it provides "important acute biomarkers for additional investigation" of long-term treatment with CBDV.

The study was conducted as part of an ongoing epilepsy research project between GW Pharmaceuticals and Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd.

Source: LeafScience

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Aside Hollywood exaggerations, studies find that psichedelic drugs reduce stress and anxiety. if you think LSD and psilocybe mushrooms are bad, then everything you know is wrong.

The Big Picture with Thom Hartmann tackles the latest in political news, medical debates, commentary and more. From local, to national and international nothing will escape Thom Hartmann view.

Thom Hartmann is a NY Times bestselling and 4-times project Censored winning author of over twenty books and America's #1 progressive radio host. His program is heard daily on hundreds of stations; including SiriusXM, DirectTV, Dish Network, Dial-Global, Pacifica, and Free Speech TV, broadcast live from the US and on five continents. Watch The Big Picture with Thom Hartmann on RT America weeknights at 7:00pm and 10:00pm Eastern Time.

 )

RT interviews April Short, Associate Editor to AlterNet.

www.TurismoAssociati.it would like to thank Teus Vos for posting this video on our FaceBook channel-group.

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Un subiect prea tabu, aceasta discutie despre femeile gravide si marijuana. Un "secret murdar" pentru femei, in special in primul trimestru chinuitor cand canabisul poate scuti femeia insarcinata de greata si stres.

Femeile insarcinate din Jamaica folosesc marijuana pentru a calma greata, precum si pentru a diminua stresul si depresia, de multe ori sub forma de ceai.

Un studiu efectuat in 1960 in Jamaica de catre studenta Melanie Dreher arata ca marijuana nu are nici un efect negativ asupra mamei sau a copilului, dimpotriva pareau sa exceleze. In cazul alcoolului sau a heroinei exista riscul de malformatii congenitale si probleme de dezvoltare insa nu si de la canabis.

Cu toate ca acest studiu nu a fost "vazut bine" de catre autoritati, Dreher nu a lasat garda jos ci din contra a mers mai departe cu studiile pana a ajuns Decan la Universitatea Rush cu grade de asistenta medicala, antropologie si filozofie, plus un doctorat in antropologie la Universitatea Columbia.
"Chiar daca este ilegala, utilizarea marijuanei in scopuri medicale o voi sustine mereu, pentru ca stiu ce inseamna acest pur tratament".

Canabisul nu este daunator mamei si nici a copilului nenascut. Plus de asta, copii au fost supusi testelor pe perioada de pana la cinci ani dupa nastere si nu s-a raportat nici macar un caz de malformatii sau boli. Copii sunt perfect sanatosi, cu o capacitate mintala si fizica normala, incheie Dreher.

Sursa: ComunitateaProCannabis - Articol original: Study: The Effect of Cannabis on Pregnant Women and Their Newborns. A study of pregnant Jamaican mothers shows that ganja doesn’t harm newborns.

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Researchers at the University of Nottingham conducted a meta-analysis of previous studies, reports the Nottingham Post, concluding that cannabinoids could reduce the severity of stroke as well as improve neurological outcomes.

Lead author Dr. Tim England, honorary consultant stroke physician at the University of Nottingham and Royal Derby Hospital, presented the findings at this week's annual UK Stroke Forum conference.

Dr. England explained in an university release that while research thus far has been limited to animals, the latest findings provide support for human studies.

"This meta-analysis of pre-clinical stroke studies provides valuable information on the existing, and importantly, missing data on the use of cannabinoids as a potential treatment for stroke patients. The data are guiding the next steps in experimental stroke in order to be able to progress onto initial safety assessments in a clinical trial."

Dr. England and his team examined 94 past studies involving the effects of various cannabinoids on 1022 rats, mice or monkeys, reports The New Zealand Herald. The effects on stroke seemed to be consistent across all three types of cannabinoids: synthetic, marijuana-derived and those naturally produced by the body.

Dr. Dale Webb, director of research and information at the Stroke Association, also concluded that scientists should now aim to replicate the findings in humans.

"The findings have identified the potential for cannabinoids to reduce brain damage caused by stroke. Further research is needed to investigate whether cannabinoids have the same effects in humans: the effects of cannabis on the brain are highly complex and it remains a risky substance."

Following the presentation of the findings, Dr. Madina Kara, a neuroscientist at the Stroke Association, said that human trials are now "under discussion."

Source: NottinghamPost & NewZealandHerald via LeafScience

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The issue is, despite marijuana being legal in over 20 states, only a handful have implemented measures to ensure product quality.

For instance, in California, laboratory testing is completely optional. And that's bad news, warns Jeffrey Raber, who holds a Ph.D in chemistry and runs a marijuana testing lab called The Werc Shop.

 

According to Dr. Raber, pesticides are present in about 10% of samples that are sent to The Werc Shop. While mandatory lab testing would be the ideal solution, Dr. Raber recently set out to determine just how much risk pesticides really pose.

His study, published in the Journal of Toxicology, shows that using a filtered smoking device can drastically reduce the conversion of pesticides into inhalable smoke.

Dr. Raber and his team used a McFinn's Triple Filtered Water Pipe for the study, which filters smoke through both cotton and carbon layers.

Unfiltered pipes and bongs, however, appear to offer far less protection against pesticides.

While research has yet to identify the specific health effects of smoking contaminated marijuana, Dr. Raber believes that patients with compromised immune systems are most at risk. 

Source: Times-Standard via LeafScience

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I suffer from Breast Cancer, which for me, is basically a Death Sentence on my life, the thoughts of having Breast Cancer burns and itches simultaneously in my heart that i was dead alive (and looks h...
28/11/2014 @ 21:58:30
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sir are you encouraging people participate in some kind of game? ...where people give up their power? It never worked before .... that’s why I suggest instead of give up your power, exercise it from y...
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Asta e marihoana nu?ei cine te poate opri so faci ,eu nu prefer astfel de fistractie deoarece am vazut ca dupa nu mai faci altceva fecit ca dormi bine,nu am incercat nu incerc dar nu opresc pe nimeni ...
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Mai voinicilor,voi nu stiati ca inainte de 89,securistii erau omul si copacul,,ei acum sint si mai multi,cred ca au dat si lastari,ce naiba..!..
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