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Given sufficient forward speed, a bicycle pushed sideways, will not fall over. Scientists have been trying to find a conclusive explanation for this remarkable characteristic for over a century. This week, researchers at TU Delft have thrown new light on the question in a publication in Science.

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Staying stable

The research at TU Delft, in collaboration with scientists from Cornell University (USA), centred on the following intriguing question: why is a bicycle self stable, above a certain speed? You add speed to a bike and can then give it a sideways push without it falling over.

Rotating wheels

Scientists have long been poring over this complicated question, even from as far back as the nineteenth century. Until recently, the consensus within the scientific community was that the stability was very closely related to two factors. First, the rotating wheels of the bicycle were supposed to provide stability through gyroscopic effects. Secondly, it was thought that the ‘trail’ played an important part. Trail is the distance by which the contact point of the front wheel trails behind the steering axis.

Predicting

The publication by TU Delft in Science puts paid to this old notion once and for all. 'We have known for years that the generally accepted explanation for the stability of the bicycle was too simple,' says researcher Dr Arend Schwab of the 3mE faculty at TU Delft. 'Gyroscopic effects and trail do help, but are not essential for stability.' Dr Schwab and a number of colleagues brought out a publication several years ago on the theory behind the stability of the bicycle (in 2007 in Proceedings of the Royal Society, doi:10.1098/rspa.2007.1857). A mathematical model with around 25 physical parameters was developed at the time, which appeared to be able to predict very accurately whether, and at what speeds, a particular design of bicycle would be stable.

The Experiment

'In our publication in Science we have now shown not only theoretically but also by means of experiment  that our insights are correct.' Together with PhD student Jodi Kooijman, Schwab designed and constructed a bicycle with which it could be shown, in an experiment, that both gyroscopic effects and trail are not necessary for a bicycle to remain stable by itself above a certain speed.
This is the so-called Two Mass Skate bicycle. It has small and counter rotating wheels, which means there is no gyroscopic effect to speak of, and a small negative trail (in other words, where the point of contact of the front wheel is marginally in front of the steering axis). And yet the bicycle remains stable.

See the experiment Here

Giving up

'It was not easy,' explains PhD student Jodi Kooijman, who carried out most of the experimental work. 'The first prototype did not work, and we had almost given up hope after a number of iteration attempts, when we suddenly found ourselves able to show the stability. But of course everything has to fall into place. You have to deal with the ground surface, for example, which has to have exactly the right roughness and stiffness. In Sporthal II of TU Delft we found all the right conditions.'

Steering

So the theory has now been proven by experiment. But has the experimental work led to the emergence of new theoretical insights? Dr Schwab answers, 'We have demonstrated that the mass distribution is also important for stability, especially the location of the centre of mass of the bicycle's steering mechanism.' For a bicycle to be stable, the steering mechanism has to be unstable; if the bike falls, the steering should fall even more quickly.

Bicycle manufacturers

Are the theoretical insights of Schwab and his companions of any use to bicycle manufacturers? 'Certainly. Today’s bicycles are the result of a fairly long evolutionary process, and are therefore rather conservative. Essentially, there is nothing about the basic design of the bicycle that has changed since the end of the nineteenth century. Manufacturers can use our model to make directed modifications to the stability of their bicycles. That may be of particular interest for unusual designs, such as recumbent bicycles, folding bicycles and cargo bicycles.'

Source: 3mE TU Delft

More information

Title: A Bicycle Can Be Self-Stable Without Gyroscopic or Caster Effects.

Authors: J.D.G. Kooijman; A. L. Schwab (TU Delft), J.P. Meijaard (University of Twente), J.M. Papadopoulos (University of Wisconsin–Stout), A. Ruina (Cornell University)

Website Science publication, with extensive background material, photos and video: http://bicycle.tudelft.nl/stablebicycle/

Website Bicycle Dynamics research: http://bicycle.tudelft.nl/schwab/Bicycle/index.htm

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 Fiu al unui sef de trib din Africa de Sud, originar din provincia Transkei, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela s-a nascut la 18 iulie 1918 si a fost crescut dupa moartea tatalui sau de un unchi, sef al tribului Tembu. Educat in spiritul dreptatii si respectarii traditiei, Nelson a visat inca de mic sa fie conducatorul care va elibera poporul sau de sub dominatia odiosului regim de apartheid. Absolvent al scolii superioare metodiste din Healdtown, Mandela s-a inscris apoi la Fort Hare College, dar a fost exmatriculat pentru ca organizare o actiune de boicotare a orelor de curs.

In 1940, s-a mutat la Johannesburg, unde a absolvit facultatea la fara frecventa, dedicindu-se Dreptului. In 1944, s-a inscris in organizatia de tineret a Congresului National African (CNA), devenind in scurt timp unul dintre liderii acesteia. In perioada post-belica, actiunile sale de nesupunere civica, inspirata de modelul lui Mahatma Gandhi, ii vor aduce mai multe condamnari la inchisoare. Tot mai cunoscut in rindul militantilor anti-apartheid si considerat cel mai periculos activist al CNA de catre regimul de la Pretoria. Pe 12 iunie 1964, el va fi condamnat la inchisoare pe viata, ispasind o mare parte din pedeapsa in temuta inchisoare Robben Island.

De aici, in 1984 va fi mutat la inchisoarea Pollsmoor, din Capetown iar in decembrie 1988 la inchisoarea Victor Verster, loc de unde va fi eliberat, in 1990. De-a lungul celor 27 de ani de detentie, Mandela a primit numeroase oferte din partea guvernului de a fi eliberat, cu conditia sa inceteze lupta sa pentru dreptate si egalitate sociala, dar le-a refuzat. Dupa eliberare, a continuat sa pledeze pentru drepturile populatiei de culoare. In 1993, a fost laureat al Premiului Nobel pentru Pace iar in 1994 a devenit primul presedinte de culoare al Africii de Sud. S-a retras din viata politica in 1999, ducand in prezent o existenta modesta, in satul sau natal din Transkei.

GABRIEL TUDOR - magazin.ro

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By Admin (from 03/07/2011 @ 11:00:02, in it - Scienze e Societa, read 1747 times)

 

La missione STS-134 dello Space Shuttle, la penultima nella storia della gloriosa navetta spaziale americana, per l'Italia ha un significato particolare. Non solo perché con l'Endeavour parte il nostro Roberto Vittori, che a bordo della Stazione Spaziale Internazionale si unirà per un paio di settimane a Paolo Nespoli, in orbita dallo scorso dicembre; facendo sì che l'Italia diventi l'unico Paese, Usa e Russia a parte, che abbia avuto due propri rappresentanti contemporaneamente a bordo della Iss. Ma anche perché con Vittori partono molti esperimenti italiani di grande valore scientifico. Spicca su tutti AMS 2 (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2), un vero "cacciatore di antimateria". "Di fatto non conosciamo la composizione del 95% dell'Universo", spiega Roberto Battiston, docente dell'Università di Perugia e presidente della commissione nazionale per la fisica astroparticellare dell'Istituto nazionale di fisica nucleare, uno dei padri di AMS 2. "Questo esperimento speriamo appunto che ci porti risposte sulla materia "altra", cioè quella che non si vede con i normali mezzi di rilevazione. Ma che si trova anche nella stanza in cui siamo, ed è sei volte più abbondante di quella che vediamo" aggiunge Battiston.

L'AMS 2 è un vero colosso, grande quanto una stanza di cinque metri per quattro. In sostanza si tratta di un complesso sistema di rivelatori per lo studio dei raggi cosmici, la radiazione che proviene dallo spazio composta da particelle (protoni ed elettroni), nuclei atomici e una piccola parte di antiparticelle elementari. "Le antiparticelle più semplici, positroni e antiprotoni, sono state osservate e sono perfino utilizzate, pensiamo alla Pet, la tomografia a emissione di positroni, che sono elettroni positivi" sottolinea Battiston. "Riuscire però a rivelare per la prima volta un antinucleo di elio o di carbonio sarebbe fondamentale per capire l'universo primordiale".

Scienza e tecnologia dell'AMS

AMS 2 registrerà il passaggio di decine di miliardi di raggi cosmici prima che si scompongano o si annichiliscano nell'interazione con l'atmosfera del nostro pianeta. L'esperimento è realizzato dall'Istituto nazionale di fisica nucleare in collaborazione con l'Asi (Agenzia spaziale italiana). Il nostro Paese è il primo "contributor", avendo coperto circa il 25% del costo del progetto, valutabile complessivamente in circa 1,5 miliardi di euro.

Fonte: Focus.it

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Working with funding from Google, they hope to make computers understand what it’s like to pursue an outcome only to be disappointed. That, they think, could really help computers predict the future.

While software may never know what it’s like to roll out of bed with splitting headache and dress quietly in the dark, it can certainly measure the distance between a desired outcome and the actual outcome achieved. And by doing so computers could learn to minimize “regret,” which in this case is measured by that distance.

TAU computer scientists working on learning theory and other thorny computer intelligence issues think that by teaching computers to reduce regret, they would essentially be teaching them to evaluate all the relevant variables surrounding an outcome in advance. This would allow them to do things like more efficiently route Internet traffic, prioritize server resource requests, or predict when traffic to a site might spike and provide the necessary capacity beforehand. And they could do it all based on data coming to them in real-time.

Source: Popsci

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RECORDED STREAM of Assange, Žižek & Goodman Conversation July 2, 11am EDT.

Stainless Steel Rat, is the play about the life and works of Julian Assange a rip-off?

Paul Tomlinson writes in the Harry Harrison Official News Blog: Assange is known for taking things which don’t belong to him and making them freely available. The authors of the ‘wikiplay’ Stainless Steel Rat seem to have taken a similar approach, but they’re using Harry Harrison’s creations for their own profit. Shame.

On the words of Harry Harrison: These guys are ripoff artists. I'd have them in jail if I could. I'm trying.

Meanwhile, in the Sydney Morning Herald: Stainless Steel Rat attempts to answer all [big] questions [about Assange], while offering chuckles and cheap laughs along the way. The result is a half-digested dog's breakfast of political thriller, media satire, sex comedy and speculative psycho-sexual analysis. The play's references to sodomy border on the obsessive. Drawing parallels between Assange's penetration of network firewalls, to his bare-backing of Swedish groupies, is plain misguided. [...] A gutsy attempt to grab a headline and run with it, but as it stands, Elisha's framing is clumsy - unnecessary, really - and his desire to titillate will strike anyone, with more than a passing interest in the subject, as patronising or dismissive.

Bradley Manning Rally in New York!

Elaine Brower invites us from Bradley Manning dot org: Get Your “I am Bradley Manning” picture taken in Union Square at the Bradley Manning Photo Booth. Saturday, July 2 from 2-5 pm. Check out your photo and then talk to other people about Brad’s case and encourage them to support his cause! If everyone who reads this announcement talked to 10 people about Brad Manning and why he should be free, we could made a big dent in that 40% of New Yorkers who never heard of him! So come out and show your support, and let’s get the word out on this holiday weekend.

Legal Complaint against Visa & MasterCard

WikiLeaks tweeted the Legal Complaint against Visa & MasterCard for political censorship; Forbes dot com presents a summary by Andy Greenberg: The complaint argues that the three payment firms have violated Articles 101 and 102 of the E.U. Treaty, which deal with competition among businesses and forbid the creation of anti-competitive cartels. Article 101 prevents firms from creating partnerships for the purposes of price fixing, and Article 102 forbids firms in a “dominant position” from abusing that position. Both Visa and MasterCard have claimed that payments to WikiLeaks and DataCell were suspended because they potentially violate the companies’ terms of service. MasterCard has gone as far explaining that it prohibits “customers from directly or indirectly engaging in or facilitating any action that is illegal.” Visa has stated that it is investigating “the nature of [WikiLeaks] business and whether it contravenes Visa operating rules.”

Today, at 11 am EDT, Amy Goodman To Host Discussion With WikiLeaks Editor-In-Chief Julian Assange and Slovenian Philosopher Slavoj Žižek

Democracy Now anchor Amy Goodman will host a Discussion With WikiLeaks Editor-In-Chief Julian Assange and Slovenian Philosopher Slavoj Žižek at 11 am EDT. Full information here.

Simultaneously (at 11am EST; 4pm GMT; 8pm AEST), Frontline Club will host a special "in conversation" event about this same Democracy Now broadcasting, according to their Twitter account.

Source: WLcentral.org

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By directly linking the motions of two physically separated atoms, the technique has the potential to simplify information processing in future quantum computers and simulations.

Described in a paper published Feb. 23 by Nature, the NIST experiments enticed two beryllium ions (electrically charged atoms) to take turns vibrating in an electromagnetic trap, exchanging units of energy, or quanta, that are a hallmark of quantum mechanics. As little as one quantum was traded back and forth in these exchanges, signifying that the ions are "coupled" or linked together. These ions also behave like objects in the larger, everyday world in that they are "harmonic oscillators" similar to pendulums and tuning forks, making repetitive, back-and-forth motions.

"First one ion is jiggling a little and the other is not moving at all; then the jiggling motion switches to the other ion. The smallest amount of energy you could possibly see is moving between the ions," explains first author Kenton Brown, a NIST post-doctoral researcher. "We can also tune the coupling, which affects how fast they exchange energy and to what degree. We can turn the interaction on and off."

The experiments were made possible by a novel, one-layer ion trap cooled to minus 269 C (minus 452 F) with a liquid helium bath. The ions, 40 micrometers apart, float above the surface of the trap. In contrast to a conventional two-layer trap, the surface trap features smaller electrodes and can position ions closer together, enabling stronger coupling. Chilling to cryogenic temperatures suppresses unwanted heat that can distort ion behavior.

The energy swapping demonstrations begin by cooling both ions with a laser to slow their motion. Then one ion is cooled further to a motionless state with two opposing ultraviolet laser beams. Next the coupling interaction is turned on by tuning the voltages of the trap electrodes. In separate experiments reported in Nature, NIST researchers measured the ions swapping energy at levels of several quanta every 155 microseconds and at the single quantum level somewhat less frequently, every 218 microseconds. Theoretically, the ions could swap energy indefinitely until the process is disrupted by heating. NIST scientists observed two round-trip exchanges at the single quantum level.

To detect and measure the ions' activity, NIST scientists apply an oscillating pulse to the trap at different frequencies while illuminating both ions with an ultraviolet laser and analyzing the scattered light. Each ion has its own characteristic vibration frequency; when excited, the motion reduces the amount of laser light absorbed. Dimming of the scattered light tells scientists an ion is vibrating at a particular pulse frequency.

To turn on the coupling interaction, scientists use electrode voltages to tune the frequencies of the two ions, nudging them closer together. The coupling is strongest when the frequencies are closest. The motions become linked due to the electrostatic interactions of the positively charged ions, which tend to repel each other. Coupling associates each ion with both characteristic frequencies.

The new experiments are similar to the same NIST research group's 2009 demonstration of entanglement -- a quantum phenomenon linking properties of separated particles -- in a mechanical system of two separated pairs of vibrating ions. However, the new experiments coupled the oscillators' motions more directly than before and, therefore, may simplify information processing. In this case the researchers observed quantum behavior but did not verify entanglement.

The new technique could be useful in a future quantum computer, which would use quantum systems such as ions to solve problems that are intractable today. For example, quantum computers could break today's most widely used data encryption codes. Direct coupling of ions in separate locations could simplify logic operations and help correct processing errors. The technique is also a feature of proposals for quantum simulations, which may help explain the mechanisms of complex quantum systems such as high-temperature superconductors.

In addition, the demonstration also suggests that similar interactions could be used to connect different types of quantum systems, such as a trapped ion and a particle of light (photon), to transfer information in a future quantum network. For example, a trapped ion could act as a "quantum transformer" between a superconducting quantum bit (qubit) and a qubit made of photons.

Source: Science Daily

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By Admin (from 02/07/2011 @ 11:00:59, in ro - Stiinta si Societate, read 1783 times)

 Formele de exprimare artistica nu cunosc limite. Pe masura ce stiinta si tehnica ocupa noi teritorii, virgine, persoane de formatie artistica sau nu, gasesc de cuviinta sa-si exprime emotiile estetice in cele mai surprinzatoare moduri. Delimitarile clasice ale teoreticienilor au fost depasite de multa vreme si cu mult, astfel ca insasi estetica frumosului si cea a uratului ar trebui revizuite si adaugite. Astazi, va prezentam un gen bizar si intrucatva morbid, considerat totusi arta autentica. Este asa-numita Virtual Life Art, adica „arta vietii virtuale”, cum ar veni pe romaneste.

Totul incepe inainte de nastere

„Daca i s-ar fi spus lui Leonardo da Vinci ca trebuie facuta distinctia intre arta si stiinta, sigur ar fi ras!” – afirma radiologul Rodolphe von Gombergh, initiatorul ciudatei tehnici, care are un impact emotional deosebit asupra privitorului. Activitatea cotidiana a pseudoartistului se refera la depistarea tumorilor prostatei, a anevrismului cerebral, a leziunilor ateromatoase etc., in centrul sau de radiologie din Paris.

Anul 1993 l-a proiectat insa intr-un domeniu mult mai vast si mai „seducator”, o data cu fuziunea dintre imagistica prin rezonanta magnetica si tehnica 3D, care a permis vederea fatului, datorita ecografiei tridimensionale. Artistul din el l-a determinat pe von Gomberg sa aplice culori pe imaginile respective si astfel a debutat in 1996 cu expozitia „Inainte de nastere sau... primul domiciliu cunoscut”. In functie de dorinta autorului, interiorul corpului femeii insarcinate era deschis sau inchis privirii, prin intermediul undelor radiologice, al holografiilor si al tehnologiilor vizuale. Apoi, a trecut la explorarea – fasie cu fasie, daca se poate spune astfel – a trupului feminin, in general.

Un scaner pentru mileniul trei

O eleva bucuresteana, inzestrata cu deosebite calitati lirice, a fost intrebata ocazional daca ar putea sa defineasca visul. Cu inocenta si genialitatea specifice absolut oricarui copil inca neatins de tarele societatii, ea a raspuns ca visul este ceea ce vedem atunci cand, tinand ochii inchisi, privim inauntrul nostru. Cam asa ceva realizeaza artistul von Gombergh, dar la modul concret, folosindu-se de instrumentele radiologului. De altfel, Virtual Life Art inseamna pentru el un amestec de anatomie, informatica si arta.

Transparenta si culoarea aplicate imaginii scanate introduc privitorul intr-o a patra dimensiune, unde cea mai indiscreta privire devine si cea mai putin agresiva. In mod normal, computerul care ajuta la diagnosticarea maladiilor ofera 5000 de posibilitati de a vedea corpul pacientului. In context artistic, exista miliarde de variante! Performanta pentru care Rodolphe lucreaza pe un computer de 20 de ori mai puternic decat cele obisnuite. De asemenea, daca scanerul medical ofera imagini de 500x500 pixeli, cel al artistului urca la 4000x4000 pixeli. La televiziune, limita maxima este de 1920x1080 pixeli...

Printre „maruntaiele” Giocondei

Personajele lucrarilor lui Rodolphe sunt si paciente, dar mai ales frumoase actrite, ca Audrey Dana sau Nadia Farés, care imprumuta noii arte siluetele, dar si „maruntaiele” lor. Dupa ce scanerul decupeaza in lamele corpul subiectului, munca artistica duce la modelarea relifului imaginii, a culorilor si a jocurilor de lumini si umbre. Practic, posibilitatile sunt nelimitate. De pilda, lucrarea „Liniile din palma” prezinta un tors cu mana dreapta asezata pe piept (deci cu dosul palmei catre privitor), dar decuparea partiala a imaginilor scanate ne ofera prilejul sa vedem palma ca si cum ne-am afla in interiorul acesteia; un interior fals, transparent si colorat in galben-verzui.

„Doamna aurie” este deopotriva imbracata si dezbracata, aici luminile avand un rol esential, caci pot veni atat din exterior, cat si din interiorul corpului. De ce spuneam insa ca Virtual Life Art are si o nuanta de morbiditate? Poate ca raspunsul cel mai potrivit ni-l ofera „Gioconda secolului XXI”: o frumoasa tanara „decupata” succesiv in sase cadre, careia ii putem admira (?!) si oasele craniului, si o sectiune in sanul drept, si fibrele muschiilor antebratului, apoi organele interne din cutia toracica. Ce urmeaza? Artistul radiolog s-a orientat catre scanarea unor barbati celebri si a unor contorsionisti. Rezultatul – surprize, surprize!

ADRIAN-NICOLAE POPESCU - magazin.ro

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# Esiste un metodo scientifico e affidabile che permetta di prevedere con certezza dove e quando si verificherà un terremoto?

Purtroppo no. Oggi i terremoti possono essere previsti solo statisticamente: analizzando la storia sismica di una determinata zona è cioè possibile stimare la probabilità che si verifichi un terremoto entro un certo intervallo di tempo.
Geofisica e statistica possono delle indicazioni sulle zone maggiormente esposte al rischio sismico, ma nessuno è in grado di stabilire il momento esatto in cui questo si manifesterà.
I recenti terremoti che hanno colpito la Nuova Zelanda e il Giappone sono un esempio: nessuno poteva prevedere questi grandi cataclismi.

 

# Ci sono basi scientifiche per dire che il prossimo 11 maggio a Roma si verificherà un terremoto?

Assolutamente no. La voce che da qualche tempo circola su Internet e su alcuni mass media è una bufala. Per altro nel nostro paese si verificano ogni giorno decine di terremoti senza alcun effetto su persone o cose, quindi prevedere che nella zona di Roma si verificherà un terremoto è abbastanza scontato.

# Roma è una città a rischio sismico particolarmente elevato?

Secondo gli esperti dell’Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica no. La città risente comunque dei terremoti che hanno epicentro nella zona dei Castelli o nell’Appennino abruzzese-umbro. In questo video il parere degli esperti dell' Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia.

# Che cosa sono i precursori sismici?

Roma è sismica? Andrea Tertulliani risponde a questa ed altre domande sul rapporto tra Roma e i terremoti.

I precursori sismici sono parametri chimici, fisici e geologici che subiscono dei cambiamenti prima di un terremoto.  Possono essere classificati in:
 
- Precursori geochimici: variazione della concentrazione di alcuni elementi chimici radioattivi, tra cui il radon, nelle acque sotterranee e nei gas al suolo.

- Precursori geofisici: mutazioni nella velocità e nelle caratteristiche di alcuni specifici tipi di onde sismiche e delle caratteristiche elettromagnetiche delle rocce.

- Precursori geodetici: cambiamenti nella posizione e nell’inclinazione di rocce e parti della superficie.

- Precursori sismologici: sono i microterremoti rilevabili solo strumentalmente che si possono verificare prima di un grande evento sismico.

# I precursori sismici possono prevedere i terremoti?

 No, anche se negli ultimi anni la scienza ha prestato grande attenzione alle variazioni dei parametri geofisici rilevabili prima di un terremoto. Purtroppo fino ad oggi nessuno è riuscito a validare nella pratica i risultati degli studi e delle teorie sui sensori sismici: il loro utilizzo nella previsione dei terremoti può portare a falsi allarmi che, scatenando il panico nella popolazione, possono essere tanto pericolosi quando un sisma.
Gli scienziati non escludono comunque che, in futuro, lo studio dei precursori sismici possa fornire indicazioni utili alla previsione dei terremoti.

#Cos’è il sistema di early warning sui terremoti implementato in Giappone?

 A differenza di quanto riportato da alcuni media nei giorni immediatamente successivi al sisma che lo scorso 11 marzo ha colpito il Giappone, nemmeno questo paese ad elevatissimo rischio sismico dispone di un sistema di previsione dei terremoti.
Esiste però da qualche anno una rete di monitoraggio che, al momento della scossa, è in grado di avvisare via SMS gli abitanti della zona di ciò che sta succedendo con qualche decina di secondi di anticipo, sufficienti per mettersi in salvo. L’onda sismica infatti impiega 20-25 secondi a percorrere 100 km.  Nel campo della ricerca sui precursori c'è ancora molto da fare, sia in termini di sviluppo metodologico che di validazione statistica dei risultati, prima di una loro reale applicabilità in chiave operativa.

Fonte: Focus.it

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A study of Israeli new spapers indicates that both religious and secular newspapers are using their ability to select and present information to divide groups of Israeli citizens, said Matt Evans, a ssistant professor, political science.

"The media has immense power to influence people by the way they frame information," said Evans. "Instead of working to heal differences, they are actually exacerbating the social cleavages."

Journalists frame information by determining what articles they publish, where articles are placed in the paper and how the articles are written. They can also use photos and artwork to frame the information, said Evans, who reported his findings in the current issue of the Middle East Journal.

Evans said media framing is often unintentional.

"I do not think the media are being used to deliberately divide people," said Evans. "Rather there is a downward spiral as each side makes its case to its core audience."

According to Evans, media framing in Israeli newspapers is largely aimed at separating secular and religious Jewish communities. Newspapers run by the ultra-orthodox Haredim, such as Yated Ne'eman and HaModia, provide more obvious examples of how media framing divides people.

Since most Haredi avoid secular media, the newspapers are the primary news sources for the group's members. However, the Haredi press typically omits stories about religious public officials involved in crimes or scandals. Haredi reporters also use such phrases as "wonderful boys" or "brilliant young men," to sarcastically describe secular political figures.

Secular newspapers use more subtle media framing techniques to divide groups, according to Evans. For example, secular newspapers use pictures of conservatively clad Haredi five times more than moderate modern orthodox community members, even though the majority of orthodox citizens are modern orthodox. Evans said that the portrayal of religious citizens as Haredi plays on fears that orthodox citizens are threatening to exert political influence. Secular citizens fear change in the neighborhood standards, such as closing stores on the Sabbath.

Newspapers are important sources of news in Israel. Most Israelis read two or more newspapers on the weekend and in a 1995 survey on Israeli newspaper readership, 88 percent of the Jewish respondents read a daily paper, according to Evans. Israel is the only country in the Middle East that has a free press, according to the Global Press Freedom Rankings.

Evans said the use of media framing to divide groups is a global problem.

"The power the media is using to divide people isn't just found in Israel, and it's not just being used to exacerbate the differences between secular and religious groups," Evans said. "In the United States, for instance, you can see how MSNBC, on the left, and Fox News, on the right, frame coverage to change how we see Republicans and Democrats."

Provided by Pennsylvania State University.

Source: Physorg.com

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By Admin (from 01/07/2011 @ 11:00:23, in ro - Stiinta si Societate, read 1894 times)

 S-a vorbit foarte mult despre legaturile nazistilor cu societatile ezoterice, vehiculandu-se ideea ca Hitler ar fi fost membru al gruparii oculte Thule. Se pare insa ca si cei care au incercat sa-l asasineze pe dictatorul nazist, in 1944, faceau parte dintr-o organizatie secreta, care crezuse in rolul mesianic al acestuia dar care ajunsese sa-l considere intre timp un tradator al „Germaniei sacre”. Care au fost mobilurile tainice care au declansat operatiunea Valkiria – complotul impotriva lui Hitler – sa incercam sa descoperim impreuna, in randurile ce urmeaza.

Miracol sau intamplare?

Ziua de 20 iulie 1944. Cartierul general al armatei germane din Rastenburg, cunoscut drept „Vizuina Lupului”, in Prusia Orientala. La ora 12:30, Adolf Hitler a convocat o conferinta cu principalii sai consilieri militari, care va avea loc, potrivit unei hotarari de ultima ora, nu in buncarul führerului, ci intr-o cabana de lemn. Printre participanti se afla si locotenent-colonelul Claus Schenk, conte de Stauffenberg. Un barbat de aproape 40 de ani, chipes si voinic, in ciuda faptului ca si-a pierdut pe front, cu un an in urma, bratul drept, un ochi si o parte din piciorul drept. Intrand in baraca, el lasa servieta voluminoasa sub masa, cat mai aproape de locul unde va sta Führerul.

In interiorul servietei, printre cateva documente, se afla si o bomba cu ceas, de fabricatie britanica. La putin timp dupa ce discutia incepe, Stauffenberg iese din incapere, sub pretextul unui telefon urgent, si, ca semn ca se va intoarce, lasa pe masa chipiul de ofiter. La 12:40, o explozie formidabila zguduie linistea padurii: baraca este total distrusa. Stauffenberg aude zgomotul si presupune ca misiunea sa s-a incheiat cu succes. Nimeni n-ar fi putut supravietui unei astfel de explozii colosale. El paraseste fara dificultate Vizuinea Lupului si ia un avion spre Berlin. Aici, isi anunta complicii despre succes si le cere sa transmita parola catre toate cartierele armatei germane: Valkiria.

Prin acest cuvant, complicii sunt indemnati sa-i aresteze imediat pe colaboratorii lui Hitler, sa preia puterea, numind un guvern interimar si sa captureze centrele de comunicatii. Dar nimic din toate acestea nu se intampla. Abia sosit la Ministerul de Razboi, contele afla ca Hitler a supravietuit atacului, desi fusesera cativa morti si mai multi raniti. Dar dictatorul, cu pantalonii sfasiati, cu mana dreapta umflata, parul ars si fata acoperita de taieturi, este viu. Mai mult, el participa la proiectata intalnire cu Benito Mussolini, liderul italian, caruia ii arata urmele exploziei, vorbindu-i despre miracolul ce l-a salvat.

Expertii sunt de acord ca, daca Hitler n-ar fi avut inspiratia sa mute locul de desfasurare al sedintei, din buncarul de ciment nimeni n-ar mai fi scapat cu viata. Imediat, Stauffenberg si cativa dintre participantii la complot sunt arestati. Generalul Fromm, el insusi implicat, ordona sa fie executati sumar, in speranta ca astfel nu se va mai sti despre rolul sau. Speranta zadarnica, intrucat, desi complotistii sunt impuscati, nici el nu va scapa de executie. Generalul Ludwig Beck, care urma sa fie seful statului, in cazul reusitei puciului, este spanzurat. Il urmeaza alti zeci de membri ai conspiratiei. La ordinul lui Hitler, ei vor fi spanzurati cu corzi de pian, pentru a suferi mai mult. In serile urmatoare, dictatorul se delecteaza urmarind chinurile, filmate, ale acestora.

Idealul „Germaniei secrete”

Stauffenberg a murit strigand „Traiasca Germania sacra!”, desi unii biografi ai sai sustin ca ar fi putut la fel de bine striga: „Traiasca Germania secreta!” Printre acestia se numara britanicii Michael Baigent si Richard Leigh, autori ai cartii „Cruciada mistica impotriva lui Hitler”. Ei sustin ca atentatul pus la cale contra liderului nazist nu a fost exclusiv opera unor militari revoltati de actiunile nesabuite ale acestuia, ci mai curand un plan bine intocmit, apartinand unei societati oculte, ai carei membri facusera parte din cercul poetului mistic german Stefan George (1868-1933), autor al poemului „Germania secreta”.

Ca orice fiu de nobil, Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg a primit o educatie aleasa, fiind crescut in spiritul celui mai dogmatic catolicism si al devotiunii fata de monarhia prusaca. Dar in acelasi timp, in anii tineretii el a facut cunostinta cu miscarile artistice de avangarda si a intrat in cercurile intelectuale ale vremii. De o frumusete ireala, ca si cei doi frati ai sai, el a ales cariera militara la sugestia tatalui, ca fiind cea mai buna cale de a-si servi patria si idealurile. Si, potrivit celor doi autori britanici, societatea misticului Stefan George ii va cizela aceste idealuri si, peste multi ani, ii va da imboldul de a-l inlatura pe Hitler.

Stefan George faurise conceptul Germaniei secrete inca din primii ani ai secolului XX si aceasta devenise nucleul straniei sale ideologii. In conceptia sa, urmata cu fanatism de adepti, Germania secreta urma sa fie germenul ascuns al unei uniuni formate din toti cetatenii constienti de mareata lor mostenire spirituala, inradacinata in traditiile crestine despre Sfantul Graal si in idealurile cavaleresti si de frumusete fizica si spirituala ale Evului Mediu. Pentru membrii organizatiei, sacrificiul si onoarea reprezentau cele mai de pret notiuni, avand drept surse de inspiratie clasicismul grec si mesianismul cristic.

George era convins ca misiunea lui era de a mentine vie flacara spiritualitatii germane, intr-o epoca inclinata tot mai mult spre materialism. Ceremoniile de initiere erau fastuoase si cu o tenta macabra deloc de neglijat. Toti candidatii trebuiau sa aiba, in primul rand, o frumusete fizica deosebita si calitati intelectuale iesite din comun. Si, in mod surprinzator, aproape toti membrii erau inalti si blonzi, ca acei arieni visati de Hitler si toti semanau izbitor intre ei. In cadrul ceremoniilor, desfasurate intotdeauna doar noaptea, George Stefan aparea imbracat in vesminte negre, ca un fel de preot, si le cerea neofitilor sa depuna juramant de credinta fata de Germania secreta.

Hitler devine din „ales” – Antichrist

Multe dintre ideile acestei societati se vor regasi mai tarziu in ideologia national-socialista – iata motivul pentru care Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg a si imbratisat la inceput cu atata entuziasm cauza lui Hitler – desi Stefan George nu era nici pe departe un simpatizant al nazistilor. El ura si denunta vulgaritatea si materialismul, si pleda pentru o oranduire opusa atat  decandentei burgheze cat si brutalului bolsevism. In mod curios, ritualurile societatii sale foloseau excesiv zvastica – Hakenkreuz – care va deveni, peste ani, simbol nazist.

Deosebirea cea mai flagranta dintre Germania secreta si gruparea lui Hitler era faptul ca prima nu manifesta nici un fel de anti-semitism. De altfel, printre apropiatii lui George se numarau intelectuali evrei de marca, precum poetul sionist Kart Wolfskehl, care s-a exilat in Noua Zeelanda, in 1933, continuind insa sa corespondeze cu Stauffenberg. Pana si viitorul ministru nazist al Propagandei, Goebbels, sperase sa fie primit in randurile organizatiei, dar fusese refuzat. Chiar si asa, in 1933, el va incerca sa-l aduca inapoi, pe Stefan George, din exilul voluntar la Minusio, in Italia, dar batranul poet va refuza toate onorurile nazistilor si va muri departe de patrie.

O alta deosebire era homoerotismul declarat al miscarii, George insusi fiind un impatimit adept al homosexualitatii sacre, inspirate de pilda anticilor greci. Cu toate acestea, venirea la putere a lui Hitler a fost salutata de multi dintre componentii Germaniei secrete, printre care si Stauffenberg, care l-au privit pe Führer ca pe liderul carismatic profetit de Stefan George. Insa atunci cand Hitler se va face vinovat de orori fara precedent, tarand Germania in haos, acesti membri il vor  considera, din „ales”, un Antichrist si isi vor face o datorie de onoare din a-l elimina. Chiar contele declara, cu putin timp inainte de incercarea esuata de atentat: „omul care va face asta (sa-l ucida pe Hitler – n.n.) trebuie sa infrunte riscul de a intra in istoria Germaniei ca un tradator. Dar daca nu o va face, va fi un tradator al propriei constiinte.”

Autor: GABRIEL TUDOR - Sursa: Magazin.ro

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