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By Admin (from 22/11/2011 @ 11:00:10, in ro - Observator Global, read 1135 times)

Femeile care au o copie defectă a unei gene numită RAD51D au sanse de 1/11 să dezvolte cancer ovarian, spun cercetătorii, care consideră acestă informatie drept cea mai importantă descoperire din ultimul deceniu în domeniul cercetărilor asupra genelor implicate în cancerul ovarian.

Descoperire: o nouă genă implicată în apariția cancerului ovarian

Specialistii de la Centrul de Cercetare a Cancerului din Marea Britanie speră ca în câtiva ani să poată pune la punct un test pentru a identifica femeile care riscă să se îmbolnăvească; unele dintre acestea r putea opta pentru îndepărtarea chirurgicală a ovarelor, pentru a împiedica aparitia bolii. si, desigur, un medicament care să împiedice dezvoltarea cancerului .

Experimentele de laborator au sugerat că celulele cu gene RAD51D defecte sunt sensibile la inhibitorii PARP - o nouă clasă de medicamente concepute pentru a trata cancerul cauzat de două gene defecte, BRCA1 si BRCA2, implicate în cancerul de sân si cel ovarian. Inhibitorii PARP blochează mecanismele de reparare a ADN în celulele canceroase, ducând astfel la moartea acestor celule.

Cele mai mari companii farmaceutice din lume lucrează acum la crearea unor inhibitori de acest gen. Unul dintre aceste medicamente, testat în cadrul unui studiu clinic, a reusit să încetinească progresia cancerului ovarian.

Specialistii de la Institutul Britanic de Cercetarea a Cancerului au comparat ADN-ul a 911 femei, care proveneau din familii cu antecedente de cancer mamar sau ovarian, cu ADN-ul provenit de la peste 10.000 de femei care au făcut parte din grupul de control. În cazul femeilor care au avut cazuri de cancer în familie, medicii au găsit opt defecte la nivelul genei RAD51D, spre deosebire de un singur defect găsit în cazul grupului de control.

Anual, la nivel mondial 230.000 de femei sunt diagnosticate cu cancer ovarian. Dintre acestea, majoritatea sunt diagnosticate în stadii avansate, ceea ce duce la moarte a 70% dintre ele, în mai putin de 5 ani. Din această cauză, medicii sunt preocupati de găsirea unui medicament eficient, care să poată opri dezvoltarea acestui tip de cancer.

Sursa: FOXNews

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By Admin (from 22/11/2011 @ 08:08:08, in en - Global Observatory, read 1518 times)

What if, instead of waiting days or weeks for a cast to be produced and prosthetic dental implants, false teeth and replacement crowns to be made, your dentist could quickly scan your jaw and "print" your new teeth using a rapid prototyping machine known as a 3D printer?

Researchers in Iran explain how medical imaging coupled with computer-aided design could be used to create a perfect-fit blueprint for prosthetic dentistry, whether to replace diseased or broken teeth and jaw bone. The blueprint can then be fed into a so-called 3D printer to build up an exact replica using a biocompatible composite material. Such technology has been used in medical prosthetics before, but this is an early step into prosthetic dentistry using rapid prototyping.

Writing in the International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing, mechanical engineer Hossein Kheirollahi of the Imam Hossein University and colleague Farid Abbaszadeh of the Islamic Azad University, in Tehran, Iran, explain how current technology used to convert an MRI or CT scan into a prosthetic component requires milling technology. This carves out the appropriate solid shape from a block of polymer but has several disadvantages, uppermost being that it is very difficult to carve out a complex shape, such as a tooth. By contrast, rapid prototyping uses a 3D image held in a computer to control a laser that then "cures" powdered or liquid polymer. Almost any solid, porous, or complicated shape can be produced by this 3D-printing technology.

The Iranian team has now demonstrated how rapid prototyping can be used to fabricate dental objects such as implants and crowns quickly and easily even where features such as overhangs, sharp corners and undercuts are required. The team points out that the most appropriate medical imaging technology, CBCT (cone-beam computed tomography), which is lower cost and exposes the patient to a lower dose of ionizing radiation is best suited to the generation of the computer design for creating such dental objects ready for printing.

Source: Science Daily

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James Irwin Apollo 11 con vista Rover Lunare Soste lunari duranti la missione Apollo 17 Sotto il Sole

“Non lasceremo la Luna agli americani”, aveva dichiarato agli inizi degli anni Sessanta Nikita Khrushchev, l’allora premier dell’ Unione Sovietica, in piena Guerra Fredda. Non era passato molto tempo da quando il presidente Kennedy aveva promesso la Luna agli Stati Uniti entro gli inizi degli anni Settanta, e l’Unione Sovietica non aveva intenzione di rimanere a guardare. Quel che accadde dopo è cosa nota: la bandiera a stelle e strisce sventolò sulle lande extraterrestri nel 1969, mentre l’Urss fallì nell’impresa.

Se le impronte di Armstrong e Aldrin hanno oscurato la storia delle missioni lunari sovietiche, fu comunque la Russia la prima a conquistare il satellite. Un primato che porta la data del 14 settembre 1959, quando un oggetto spedito da Terra, senza equipaggio a bordo, si schiantava per la prima volta sul suolo lunare.

La Second Soviet Cosmic Rocket, anche nota come sonda Luna-2 (come venne ribattezzata quattro anni dopo) e come Lunik 2 (certamente più assonante con il famoso Sputnik), era partita il 12 settembre dal cosmodromo di Baikonour, in Kazakistan. Appariva come una piccola sfera (circa 390 kg di peso) con tante antenne, e non ospitava alcun astronauta: solo un magnetometro (uno strumento per rivelare eventuali campi magnetici), un contatore Geiger e uno a scintillazione (entrambi per misurare la presenza di radiazioni) e dei rivelatori di micro-meteoriti. Da Terra, il suo volo nello spazio sarebbe stato seguito attraverso la scia di gas arancione.

33 ore dopo il lancio, le comunicazioni con la sonda si persero. Poteva sembrare il fallimento della missione, e invece era la prova che lo scopo era stato raggiunto con successo: Lunik 2 si era schiantata sulla Luna, nei pressi del Mare della Serenità. Intanto i russi avevano anche avuto la conferma che la Luna non aveva una cintura radioattiva, né un forte campo magnetico.

Non era andata così bene nei tentativi che avevano preceduto questa missione. Lunik 2, infatti, a dispetto del nome, non era il secondo volo delle missioni senza equipaggio sovietiche, ma il sesto. Prima di lei c’erano stati una Luna 1 - la prima volta che una sonda riusciva a sfuggire al campo gravitazionale della Terra, che mancò sì la Luna ma raggiunse in compenso l’orbita del Sole - e altri 4 tentativi meno gloriosi.

La lista dei lanci da base russa prosegue fino ad arrivare al 1976: include una cinquantina di missioni, anche se solo 24 di queste sarebbero passate alla storia come lunari, perché arrivate effettivamente nell’orbita del satellite. Qualcuna segnò dei traguardi importanti, come la sonda Luna-3, nel 1959, che fotografò per la prima volta nella storia il lato oscuro del satellite. La Luna-9, invece, fu la prima sonda a non schiantarsi, ma compì un vero e proprio allunaggio, nel 1966.

Fonte: wired.it

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Un nou tratament împotriva leucemiei are rezultate uluitoare, surprinzându-i si pe cercetătorii care l-au conceput: acesta a eradicat celulele canceroase prezente în corpul primilor trei pacienti pe care a fost testat.

În primii doi dintre cei trei pacienti care au fost supusi tratamentului inovator, celulele canceroase au fost distruse complet. În cazul celui de-al treilea pacient, peste 70% dintre celulele canceroase au fost eliminate.

"În doar 3 săptămâni, tumorile au fost distruse, efectul fiind mult mai violent decât ne-am fi închipuit vreodată", a mărturisit Carl June, unul dintre medicii implicati în acest studiu.

Tratamentul inovator foloseste limfocitele T ale pacientilor. Celulele sunt extrase din corpul acestora, sunt modificate genetic pentru a ataca celulele canceroase si pentru a se înmulti, iar apoi sunt reintroduse în sângele pacientilor.

"Fiecare celulă modificată a distrus mii de celule canceroase", sustine June, "în cazul fiecărui pacient fiind eliminate tumori de cel putin 900 de grame".

Tratamentul radical prezintă si un efect secundar negativ, anticipat de cercetători: reduce numărul de celule care produc anticorpi.

Un tratament miraculos împotriva leucemiei are rezultate uluitoare! (VIDEO)

Persoanele implicate în acest tratament au încercat înainte chimioterapia, însă aceasta nu a functionat. Singura lor optiune în afara acestui tratament radical era un transplant de măduvă, care este extrem de riscant (acesta având o rată a mortalitătii de 20% si prezentând sanse de recuperare de doar 50%).

Tratamentul a fost încercat pe doar 3 pacienti deoarece cercetătorilor le-a fost extrem de greu să găsească fonduri pentru acest studiu, fiind foarte aproape ca acesta să nu aibă loc.

Acum, oamenii de stiintă vor să încerce acest tratament radical si pe alte tipuri de leucemie. Cei trei pacienti în rândul cărora a avut succes sufereau de leucemie limfocitică cronică.

Sursa: Huffington Post

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While implantable heart pumps may buy some time for people waiting to undergo heart transplants, such implants have at least one serious drawback - because they receive their power from an external source, a power cord must protrude through the skin of the patient's belly. About 40 percent of patients experience infections of that opening, which often require rehospitalization, and in extreme cases can even cause death. The presence of that cord also makes it impossible for patients to swim or take baths. Researchers from the University of Washington and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center are attempting to put an end to the troublesome cords, however, by developing a system that wirelessly transmits power to heart pumps.

A team led by UW associate professor of computer science and electrical engineering Joshua Smith, along with UPMC heart surgeon Pramod Bonde, created the prototype for the system. It utilizes a transmitting coil that sends out electromagnetic waves at a specific frequency, and a receiving coil that absorbs the energy from those waves, which it stores in a battery. It's a variation on the inductive power technology used in devices such as cell phone charging pads, the difference being that with those devices, the tool and the charger must be touching and held firmly in place.

The UW/UPMC system gets around that limitation, by automatically adjusting the frequency and other parameters as the transmitter and receiver move apart, or change orientation relative to one another. Presently, the wave strength is able to remain constant over a distance equivalent to the length of the transmitting coil. If a one-foot coil is used, for instance, that means it can effectively transmit power to the receiver over a distance of one foot.

If that coil were only a few inches long, that would still be sufficient for a scenario in which it were worn in a vest against the body, with the receiving coil adjacent to it, implanted under the patient's skin. Because energy would be stored in an implanted battery, that means the patient could spend periods of about two hours without having to even be near the transmitter, so they could do things like swim or bathe.

So far, the researchers have been able to use the system to power a heart pump submerged in water. Power was transmitted at about 80 percent efficiency, to a receiving coil that was just 4.3 centimeters (1.7 in) across. Animal trials are now being planned.

Ultimately, the UW/UPMC team would like to see a system in which several transmitters were located around a room, so a patient within that room could move freely about. They also believe that the technology could be used to power other types of implants, recharge consumer electronics, or even recharge underwater instruments in the ocean.

Source: GizMag

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EMERGENCY ACTION AUTHORIZED. ORGANIZATION OF LOCAL PROTESTS IS NEEDED. CONVERGE AT FREEWAYS AND HIGHWAYS. LIBRARIES, MALLS, GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, SCHOOLS...ALL ARE ACCEPTABLE AREAS! STARTING TODAY!

This is the most important operation in the history of Anonymous. No operation will be executed until we make sure this operation is successful. Any videos uploaded will be updates on this operation.

SPREAD THIS FLYER! http://www.scribd.com/doc/73211990/Operation-Blackout

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=czY-dZQsd-k&feature=colike

TRANSCRIPT

Citizens of the United States, We are Anonymous.

This is an urgent emergency alert to all people of the United States. The day we've all been waiting for has unfortunately arrived. The United States is censoring the internet. Our blatant response is that we will not sit while our rights are taken away by the government we trusted them to preserve. This is not a call to arms, but a call to recognition and action!

The United States government has mastered this corrupt way of giving us a false sense of freedom. We think we are free and can do what we want, but in reality we are very limited and restricted as to what we can do, how we can think, and even how our education is obtained. We have been so distracted by this mirage of freedom, that we have just become what we were trying to escape from.

For too long, we have been idle as our brothers and sisters were arrested. During this time, the government has been scheming, plotting ways to increase censorship through means of I S P block aides, D N S blockings, search engine censorship, website censorship, and a variety of other methods that directly oppose the values and ideas of both Anonymous as well as the founding fathers of this country, who believed in free speech and press!

The United States has often been used as an example of the ideal free country. When the one nation that is known for its freedom and rights start to abuse its own people, this is when you must fight back, because others are soon to follow. Do not think that just because you are not a United States citizen, that this does not apply to you. You cannot wait for your country to decide to do the same. You must stop it before it grows, before it becomes acceptable. You must destroy its foundation before it becomes too powerful.

Has the U.S. government not learned from the past? Has it not seen the 2011 revolutions? Has it not seen that we oppose this wherever we find it and that we will continue to oppose it? Obviously the United States Government thinks they are exempt. This is not only an Anonymous collective call to action. What will a Distributed Denial of Service attack do? What's a website de face ment against the corrupted powers of the government? No. This is a call for a worldwide internet and physical protest against the powers that be. Spread this message everywhere. We will not stand for this! Tell your parents, your neighbors, your fellow workers, your school teachers, and anyone else you come in contact with. This affects anyone that desires the freedom to browse anonymously, speak freely without fear of retribution, or protest without fear of arrest.

Go to every I R C network, every social network, every online community, and tell them of the atrocity that is about to be committed. If protest is not enough, the United States government shall see that we are truly legion and we shall come together as one force opposing this attempt to censor the internet once again, and in the process discourage any other government from continuing or trying.

We are Anonymous.
We are Legion.
We do not forgive censorship.
We do not forget the denial of our free rights as human beings.
To the United States government, you should've expected us.

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While scientists have long had the ability to edit individual genes, it is a slow, expensive and hard to use process. Now researchers at Harvard and MIT have developed technologies, which they liken to the genetic equivalent of the find-and-replace function of a word processing program, that allow them to make large-scale edits to a cell's genome. The researchers say such technology could be used to design cells that build proteins not found in nature, or engineer bacteria that are resistant to any type of viral infection.

DNA consists of long strings of "letters" (A, C, G and T) - or nucleotides - that code for specific amino acids. The genetic code consists of three-letter 'words' called codons, which are formed from a sequence of three nucleotides, such as ACT, CAG. The new technology is possible because all living organisms use the same genetic code to translate those letters into amino acids, which are then strung together into proteins. While most codons specify an amino acid, there are a few that tell the cell when to stop adding amino acids to a protein chain. It was one of these "stop" condons that the researchers targeted in their research.

To make edits to the genome of E. coli, they combined a technique previously unveiled in 2009, called multiplex automated genome engineering (MAGE), with a new technology dubbed conjugative assembly genome engineering (CAGE).

Dubbed an "evolution machine" for its ability to accelerate targeted change in living cells, MAGE locates specific DNA sequences and replaces them with a new sequence as the cell copies its DNA. This allows scientists to precisely control the types of genetic changes that occur in cells as the targets are replaced, while the rest of the genome remains untouched.

The researchers used MAGE to replace the TAG codon with another stop codon, TAA, in living E. coli cells. They chose the TAG codon because, with just 314 occurrences, it is the rarest in the E. coli genome. To make the process more manageable, they first used MAGE to engineer 32 strains of E. coli, each of which has 10 TAG condons replaced.

To combine those strains and eventually end up with one that has all 314 edits, they then developed CAGE, which allows them to precisely control a naturally occurring process called conjugation that bacteria use to exchange genetic material. The CAGE method resembles a playoff bracket, with the researchers inducing the cells to transfer genes containing TAA condons at increasingly larger scales.

After the first round of CAGE, the researchers had 16 strains, each of which had double the number of TAG edits that it started with. Those 16 strains then went into a second round producing eight strains that once again possessed more TAA codons and fewer TAG. And so on, so at the four strains stage, each had about one quester of the possible TAG substitutions.

Eager to share their findings, the researchers published their results at the semi-final round, but say they believe they are now on track to produce a single combined strain with all 314 of the substitutions.

Because the alterations were done in living cells, the researchers have been able to monitor any potential harmful effects as they appear and current results suggested that the final four strains were healthy, and can survive and reproduce.

The researchers are confident that they will create a single strain in which all TAG codons are eliminated, after which they plan to delete the cell machinery that reads the TAG condon to free it up for a completely new purpose, such as encoding a novel amino acid.

In addition to adding functionality to a cell by encoding for useful new amino acids, George Church, professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School, says the technology could also be used to introduce safeguards that prevent cross-contamination between modified organisms and the wild. Additionally, it could be used to establish multi-viral resistance by rewriting code hijacked by viruses. This would be of particular interest to industries that cultivate bacteria, such as the pharmaceuticals and energy industries, where such viruses affect up to 20 percent of cultures resulting in losses in the billions of dollars.

"We're trying to challenge people to think about the genome as something that's highly malleable, highly editable," said Harris Wang, a research fellow at Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering

The technology, which is described in the July 15 issue of Science, is the result of a seven-year collaboration between researchers in the lab of Joseph Jacobson, associate professor in the MIT Media Lab, and George Church, professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School. Along with Wang, lead authors of the paper are Peter Carr, a research scientist at the MIT Media Lab, and Farren Isaacs, an assistant professor of molecular, cellular and developmental biology at Yale University.

Source: GizMag

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Non c’entra niente il plutonio e nemmeno il Mox, uno dei più noti combustibili nucleari. Nel sito di Marcoule, a due passi da Nimes in Francia e a poche centinaia di chilometri dai confini italiani, non si effettuavano strane miscele di sostanze ultraradioattive. Nemmeno si smontavano e si riciclavano bombe atomiche. Semplicemente si fondevano pezzi di vecchi impianti nucleari e si confezionavano lingotti di acciaio fuso. Certo l’acciaio era radioattivo, ma non a livello altissimo. “ Nel sito di Marcoule – spiega Francesco Troiani dell’Enea – vengono ricompattati i rifiuti cosiddetti a media e bassa attività”. Si tratta in altre parole di materiale proveniente da altri impianti nucleari che sono stati a contatto con il combustibile nucleare ma che hanno una vita media molto più bassa. Quindi non ci sono rischi per la salute delle persone che vivono vicino all'impianto.

In un primo momento ieri pomeriggio le agenzie avevano presentato il centro di Marcoule come un sito in cui veniva fabbricato il Mox, una miscela di plutonio, proveniente da vecchie testate nucleari, e di ossidi di uranio. La presenza, nell’impianto di questi materiali così altamente pericolosi, ha immediatamente suscitato l’attenzione dei media nei confronti dell’ esplosione che si è verificata nell’impianto. A dire il vero, però, l’impianto dove è avvenuto l’incidente non ha nulla a che vedere con questi materiali pericolosi e il forno in cui si è verificata l’esplosione, era utilizzato solo per la fusione di materiali di risulta delle attività di smantellamento delle centrali.

Licenza Creative Commons

“ Per fare qualche esempio in quell’impianto venivano trattati materiali di diversa natura, come per esempio tubi in metallo, o altri prodotti provenienti o da centrali o anche dal settore medico-sanitario”. Tra le scorie a media-bassa attività rientrano infatti anche i residui medicali, quelli cioè prodotti per fare le comuni radiografie, ma anche Tac e altri tipi di indagini diagnostiche che prevedono l’utilizzo di elementi radioattivi. Impianti del genere di quello che è stato protagonista ieri in Francia non sono presenti in Italia. “ Da noi – spiega Troiani – si è preferito usare un altro sistema per il trattamento di questo tipo di rifiuti”. Il sistema scelto in Italia, non prevede la fusione dei rifiuti, ma la loro semplice compattazione attraverso una banalissima pressa. “ Questo permette di ridurre il volume delle scorie e di compattarle in blocchi come quelli delle auto per intenderci, – dice l’esperto di combustibile nucleare dell’Enea – e di condizionarle all’interno di grandi blocchi di cemento armato che non presentano alcun problema di contenimento”. Un deposito di questo tipo di materiale è presenta all’interno del centro di ricerche dell’Enea alla Casaccia, alle porte di Roma.

Fonte: wired.it - Autore: Emanuele Perugini - 13 September 2011

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By Admin (from 20/11/2011 @ 08:00:06, in ro - Observator Global, read 1248 times)

Timp de peste un deceniu, unii oameni de stiintă au crezut că dinozaurii care trăiau în regiunile din preajma Polului Sud – unde se găsea pe atunci si Australia – ar fi supravietuit lungilor ierni polare hibernând. Acum, această teorie este pusă în discutie datorită unor noi descoperiri.

Dinozaurii hibernau?

Holly Woodward, absolventă a Universitătii din Montana, a constatat că fiziologia dinozaurilor care trăiau în Australia, acum mai bine de 160 de milioane de ani, era aceeasi cu cea a dinozaurilor de pe întreg Pământul. În această perioadă, Australia era situată pe Cercul Antarctic, ceea ce înseamnă că dinozaurii trăiau aproape 6 luni pe an în întuneric.

Woodward a decis să înceapă cercetarea după ce a participat la un conferintă unde l-a auzit pe dr.Thomas Rich, autorul unui studiu despre dinozaurii din regiunile polare, sustinând ideea conform căreia dinozaurii au supravietuit ca urmare a unui proces de hibernare pe timpul noptilor polare.

De îndată ce a primit finantarea pentru studiul său, Woodward a călătorit spre Australia de unde a găsit oase de la 18 specii diferite de dinozauri.
Studiul s-a bazat pe studierea unor linii de crestere sau inele formate în tesutul osos, formatiuni care apar atunci când oasele se opresc din crestere, indicând ritmul în care a crescut respectivul animal.

Un studiu anterior acestuia, bazat pe numai două astfel de oase, a găsit semne de acest gen pe un os, dar pe celălat nu. Având în vedere că oasele nu cresc în timpul hibernării (când toate procesele fiziologice sunt mult încetinite), absenta inelelor a condus la ideea că respectivul dinozaur ar fi hibernat.
Testele efectuate de Woodward au dat însă rezulstate diferite. Inelele au fost găsite la toate exemplare, mai putin la cele mici, nedezvoltate, ceea ce înseamnă că lipsa lor nu avea legătură cu hibernarea.

Având în vedere că teoria hibernării, de la care a pornit studiul, s-a dovedit a fi gresită, Woodward a deschis calea pentru noi ipoteze: ca acesti dinozauri să fi mostenit de la strămosii loc carcateristici adapatative care să le fi permis supravietuirea în tot felul de conditii sau să fi avut un învelis izolator, care le proteja corpul de temperaturile scăzute. Întrucât cercetările sunt abia la început, aceste ipoteze urmează să fie verificate în timp.

Lucrarea lui Woodward a apărut în publicatia PLoS ONE, la începutul lunii august.

Sursa: FOXNews

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DETROIT – In 2005, Jeffrey Martin, Ph.D., professor of kinesiology, health and sport studies in Wayne State University's College of Education, found that children living in underserved communities are less physically active than their higher-income counterparts. Now, in a follow-up study, Martin has found environmental factors that may affect underserved children's physical activity and fitness levels: classmate support, gender and confidence. The study was published in the June 2011 issue of Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport.

"Underserved children, such as minority children living in low-income households, do not engage in enough physical activity either in or out of school and often lack fitness compared to Caucasian children," said Martin.

To find out why, Martin tested social and physical environmental factors at underserved schools. "Examining the school environment is a particularly important consideration in underserved communities, because often children have limited equipment, and play areas are unsafe or in poor condition," Martin said.

Martin measured social factors, including how much confidence children have in their own abilities, how much confidence they have in seeking support from teachers, how much support they receive from classmates and how conducive to physical activity they perceive their school to be. Participants in the study included African American, Caucasian, Asian American, Arab American, Hispanic American and Bengali middle school children between the ages of 10 and 14.

Confidence in their abilities and classmate support were most predictive of physical activity levels. However, most of the children were neutral about how physically and socially facilitative their school environments were to physical activity, and they did not have particularly strong confidence in their own abilities or in seeking help from teachers.

"Given the importance of peer social support, adult support, personal agency and a supportive environment for physical activity, it is certainly plausible that underserved children's lack of strong beliefs in these areas contributes to their limited physical activity," said Martin.

Confidence in seeking support from teachers was strongly related to physical activity and fitness, and Martin believes teacher support is more critical to underserved children than to children living in communities with higher socioeconomic statuses. "Fifty-seven percent of the underserved children in the state where the study was conducted live with one parent, making it plausible that the influence that teachers of underserved children have is more important relative to the influence they might have on children from two-parent homes," said Martin.

A secondary aim of the study was to determine whether gender played a role in underserved children's physical activity and fitness rates. Boys had higher levels of fitness, participated in more physical activity and reported receiving greater amounts of classmate support than girls did. "These findings suggest that it is important to be cognizant of gender differences in physical activity research," said Martin.

Martin collaborated with Nate McCaughtry, Ph.D., associate professor of pedagogy, kinesiology and physical education, and physical education program coordinator in WSU's College of Education; Sara Flory, doctoral student in WSU's College of Education; Anne Murphy, Ph.D., associate professor of research in WSU's College of Education; and Kimberlydawn Wisdom, M.D., vice president of Community Health Education and Wellness at Henry Ford Health System and Michigan's First Surgeon General.

"We hope our findings add to a body of knowledge that draws attention to the health status of underserved children and ultimately might influence public awareness and policy," said Martin.

Martin is currently continuing research on children in Detroit with an emphasis on their physical activity and nutrition quality.

Source: EurekAlert

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