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Di seguito tutti gli interventi pubblicati sul sito, in ordine cronologico.

Quando si tratta di prendere decisioni con rapidità, il cervello passa a una modalità di funzionamento diversa rispetto a quella all'opera nel caso di decisioni ponderate e accurate. Lo hanno dimostrato Richard Heitz e Jeffrey Schall della Vanderbilt University con una ricerca pubblicata su "Neuron", che smentisce il modello di riferimento attuale dell'attività del cervello in questo tipo di processo decisionale.

Il compromesso tra velocità e accuratezza è un problema essenziale per la capacità di prendere decisioni ed è stato studiato sia nel campo del comportamento sia in termini di funzionamento cerebrale, fino all'elaborazione di un semplice modello, secondo il quale il cervello usa essenzialmente la stessa modalità per decidere in modo ponderato oppure in modo rapido. Secondo questo modello, per ridurre il tempo dedicato a un processo decisionale semplicemente il cervello riduce l'attività neuronale richiesta prima di prendere una decisione. Questo implica che nel caso di scelte istantanee il cervello si basi su una quantità di informazione minore rispetto a quella che entra in gioco nelle scelte più ponderate e accurate. Come conseguenza, quindi, aumenta la probabilità di commettere un errore.


Tuttavia, prima dello studio di Heitz e Schall, l'analisi del processo decisionale non è era mai arrivati a livello di singoli neuroni. Infatti, sebbene siano disponibili test con cui indurre in soggetti il passaggio da una modalità di funzionamento all'altra, i metodi di misurazione dell'attività cerebrale umana non hanno la velocità o la risoluzione necessaria. Nel caso delle scimmie, invece, sono disponibili adeguate tecniche di misurazione, ma non era noto un metodo con cui far cambiare agli animali la velocità di una decisione.

La svolta è arrivata con lo sviluppo, da parte di Heitz e Schall, di un metodo con cui addestrare le scimmie a passare da una decisione lenta e accurata a una rapida, scegliendo uno degli oggetti di un gruppo visualizzati al computer. In una condizione sperimentale, le scimmie hanno imparato che solo una decisione ponderata sarebbe stata ricompensata. In un'altra, hanno imparato che la decisione andava presa in fretta, anche commettendo qualche errore. In entrambi i casi, i ricercatori hanno monitorato l'attività di singoli neuroni nella corteccia prefrontale, l'area cerebrale deputata ai processi cognitivi di ordine superiore.

Dai dati è emerso che in tutte e due le condizioni sperimentali inizialmente l'attività della corteccia prefrontale aumentava mentre la scimmia decideva come rispondere, ovvero subito dopo la visualizzazione degli oggetti su uno schermo. Le differenze emergevano successivamente: quando l'animale era sottoposto a uno “stress di rapidità", l'attività neurale era amplificata; quando invece le condizioni erano di “stress di accuratezza”, la stessa attività era soppressa. Tutto questo ha permesso di concludere che “una stessa informazione è stata analizzata dal cervello in modi differenti nelle due situazioni di stress”, ha sottolineato Schall.

Si tratta di un risultato inatteso, che smentisce l'attuale modello dei processi decisionali, usato anche nella descrizione di disturbi psichiatrici e neurologici. Si apre quindi un conflitto tra differenti modelli di funzionamento cerebrale che potrà essere risolto solo con successive ricerche.


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Stressed, burdened with life's difficult problems and fear that your health is declining? Then sex is the answer to happiness, longevity and a healthy body. You don't agree? Well, here is a list of the health benefits of sex, so do it daily to experience complete pleasure. These are 16 reasons to have sex today!

1. De-stress
Sex helps you reduce stress. When deep breathing exercises fail to de-stress you, sex will do the needful.

During sex your body produces dopamine, a substance that fights stress hormones, endorphins, aka "happiness hormones" and oxytocin, a desire-enhancing hormone secreted by the pituitary gland.
In a study, published in the Public Library of Science journal, three neuroscience researchers conducted a test on male rats and found that the sexually active rats were less anxious than rats with no sexual activity.

2. Great Form of Exercise
Making love is a form of physical activity. During intercourse, the physiological changes in your body are consistent with a workout. You must have noticed that the respiratory rate rises, which means you get tired. Hence, you burn calories. If you have sex three times a week for 15 minutes (but we know you can do better than that) you'll burn about 7.500 calories in a year. That's the equivalent of jogging 75 miles! Heavy breathing raises the amount of oxygen in your cells, and the testosterone produced during sex keeps your bones and muscles strong.

3. Lowers high blood pressure
Hugs and sex can improve your blood pressure. Sex reduces diastolic blood pressure, that is, the bottom number while reading blood pressure.

Researchers with the University of Paisley conducted an experiment on the same. They concluded that sex improves blood pressure.

4. Builds your immunity
Trying to fight the sniffles? Sex is the answer to fight cold and other health problems; sex can boost your immunity.

Immunoglobulin A, an antigen that fights the flu increases when the frequency of sex increases.

5. Makes You Look Younger
Making love three times a week can make you look 10 years younger, claims a Scottish researcher. "It's good for you to have good sex," says David Weeks, a clinical neuropsychologist at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital, whose study on the effects of sex on aging appears in his book, Secrets of the Superyoung.

6. Healthy heart
Sex helps you burn calories but it can also improve your heart. Sex will take care of stroke and heart attacks, you just have to enjoy the moment.

Scientists with New England Research Institute examined the effect of sex on the heart. The study concluded that men are 45 percent less likely to experience cardiovascular diseases. But the study fails to study the effect of sex on a woman's heart.

7. Pain relief
Pleasure is the measure to beat out the pain. Do you experience migraines and body pain? Well sex is the answer. But if you experience back pain, it is best to consult a doctor.

Dr. George E. Erlich, an arthritis specialist from Philadelphia conducted a study on the link between arthritis and sex. He narrows down that patients who engaged in sex experienced less pain.

8. Builds trust and intimacy
The act of sex spikes the hormone oxytocin; this hormone is responsible for your happiness and love. If your feel your relationship is falling out, there is trust or you're worried that your partner will stray away, then sex will dispel these doubts. The hormone oxytocin builds trust and brings couples closer, and cupid too.

9. Less chances of cancer
Regular ejaculation reduces your chances of developing prostate cancer. In an Australian study men who ejaculated 21 times a month were least likely to develop cancer. It is further supported by other researches that sexual intercourse reduces the risk of prostrate cancer.

10. Stronger pelvic muscles
Sex involves the use of several muscles; hence regular sexual intercourse can help you develop stronger pelvic muscles. Further, since the act of sex involves a range of muscles, it also helps strengthen these muscles - for ex: quads, your core, and the upper back. Through regular sex, you can also maintain a strong bladder and bowel function.

Strong muscles, calorie burner, improves heart health - sex seems to take care of you.

11. Prostate Protection
Most of the fluid you ejaculate is secreted by the prostate gland. If you stop ejaculating, the fluid stays in the gland, which tends to swell, causing lots of problems. Regular ejaculation will wash those fluids out and ensure the well being of your prostate until old age. Problems may also occur when you suddenly change the frequency of ejaculations.

12. Induces sleep
After that great, lovely workout you are bound to get good sleep. But guess what? Sex works the same way as exercise. The increased heart rate leads to increased post-coital relaxation. Sex could be the next thing for insomniacs! So what really happens:
- Sex can relax you, hence if you are already tired, the act of sex will induce sleep.
- When men ejaculate they become lethargic, this can make them sleepy.

13. Regular periods
Apparently sex can improve your menstrual cycle. Sex regulates hormones, which in turn regulate the menstrual cycle. Sex reduces stress, which is one of the reasons women miss their periods. Sex seems like a better option than pills.

14. Prevents Erectile Dysfunctions
Fifty per cent of men older than 40 suffer from erectile dysfunctions and all young men fear the moment when they won't be able to get it up any more. The best medicine against impotence An erection keeps the blood flowing through your penile arteries, so the tissue stays healthy. Plus, doctors compare an erection to an athletic reflex: the more you train the more capable you are to perform.

15. Live longer
A healthy heart, stronger muscles, increased circulation of oxygen and happiness are some of the factors that add life to the years and as a result - years to your life.

A study published in the British Medical Journal reveals that men who engaged in sex often live twice as those who rarely had any action.

16. Healthier semen
If you're trying to conceive, you increase the volume of semen if you have sex regularly. Regular sex replaces old sperms from the testicles. If there is a natural build of sperms it can lead to DNA damage.


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Che il "pensare positivo" sia di aiuto a sentirsi meglio lo capiscono già i bambini della scuola materna, e questo può non stupire. Ciò che è meno ovvio è che a dettare la capacità del bambino di assumere un atteggiamento positivo anche nelle situazioni difficili sia, più che la sua indole, l'atteggiamento verso la vita e la capacità di pensare positivo dei suoi genitori.

Ad appurarlo è stato uno studio condotto da ricercatori della Jacksonville University e dell'Università della California a Davis, che lo illustrano in un articolo pubblicato su "Child Development".

Nello studio, i ricercatori hanno esaminato 90 bambini di età compresa fra i 5 e i 10 anni. I bambini ascoltavano sei storie in cui due personaggi provavano un'emozione dopo aver sperimentato qualcosa di positivo (ricevere in regalo un cucciolo), negativo (rovesciare il bricco del latte), o ambiguo (l'arrivo di un nuovo insegnante). Dopo ciascuna esperienza, un personaggio aveva un pensiero ottimista, inquadrando l'evento in una luce positiva, mentre l'altro aveva un pensiero pessimista, mettendo l'evento in una luce negativa. I ricercatori a questo punto chiedevano ai bambini di giudicare le emozioni di ogni personaggio e di fornire una spiegazione per quelle emozioni. In colloqui precedenti, i ricercatori avevano accuratamente valutato il livello di ottimismo e speranza di ogni bambino e dei suoi genitori.

Già dai 5 anni i bambini capiscono che le persone si sentono meglio dopo aver avuto pensieri positivi che non dopo aver avuto pensieri negativi, e dimostrano pure di comprendere l'importanza di avere pensieri positivi in situazioni ambigue, una comprensione quest'ultima che diventa più profonda con l'aumentare dell'età.

I bambini mostrano invece una maggiore difficoltà a comprendere come il pensiero positivo possa risollevare l'animo di qualcuno che sia coinvolto in situazioni negative, come per esempio cadere e farsi male. In queste situazioni, il livello di ottimismo e di speranza del bambino ha un ruolo significativo nella capacità di comprendere il potere del pensiero positivo, ma decisamente più grande lo ha l'atteggiamento dei genitori.

"Oltre all'età, il più forte predittore della comprensione da parte dei bambini dei benefici del pensiero positivo, non è il livello di speranza e di ottimismo del bambino stesso, ma quello dei suoi genitori", spiega Christi Bamford, che ha condotto lo studio.

I risultati, osserva la Bamford, sottolineano il ruolo dei genitori nell'aiutare i bambini a imparare a sfruttare il pensiero positivo per sentirsi meglio quando le cose si fanno difficili.


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Troubled by wrinkles around your eyes? Worried that your skin is sagging, or those gray hairs are making you look your age?
So have sex.

Making love three times a week can make you look 10 years younger, claims a Scottish researcher.

"It's good for you to have good sex," says David Weeks, a clinical neuropsychologist at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital, whose study on the effects of sex on aging appears in his book, Secrets of the Superyoung.

Over the last 10 years, Weeks and his colleagues interviewed 3,500 European and American men and women on a variety of lifestyle topics. Participants ranged in age from 20 to 104, but most were 45 to 55 years old.

The thing they had in common: They looked young for their age. That's what a six-judge panel decided after watching the interviewees through a one-way mirror. The volunteer judges guessed the participants' ages from seven to 12 years younger than their actual ages, Weeks says.

Interview topics ranged from how they deal with stress within relationships, how they get along with their parents and high and low points of their lives, to prior sexual experiences, how often they had sex and whether they enjoyed it.

A vigorous sex life, Weeks says, was the second-most important determinant of how young a person looked. Only physical activity proved more important than sex in keeping aging at bay, he says.

Other major influences on keeping a person young-looking included socializing with people of all ages, being married to or in a relationship with someone younger and, for women, taking hormone replacement therapy during menopause, Weeks says.

So, how often should you do it?

The young-looking participants had sex an average of three times a week, Weeks says. By comparison, a group of men and women in the same age bracket and from similar neighborhoods reported having sex an average of twice a week, he says.

More frequent sex -- more than three times a week -- didn't seem to produce any added benefits, Weeks says.

Casual sex doesn't count

And casual sex with different partners, or cheating, did not slow the aging process, the researchers say. In fact, Weeks says, it may cause premature aging from worry and stress.

"The sex doesn't work without a good relationship," Weeks says. "It works via a relationship that is very supportive and emphatic, in which both people are physically and emotionally compatible."

Others agree that sex can be good for your health.

"It's extremely important to your health," says Dr. Barbara Bartlik, a clinical professor of psychiatry at Weill Medical College of Cornell University in New York City. "It promotes marital harmony. The stresses and strains become more manageable when a couple is having sex regularly."

And Carol Ellison, a California psychologist and author of Generations of Women Share: Intimate Secrets of Sexual Self-Acceptance, says previous research has shown other physiological benefits to sex as well.

Sex can burn fat and cause the brain to release endorphins, naturally occurring chemicals that act as painkillers and reduce anxiety, she says. In men, sex seems to stimulate the release of growth hormones and testosterone, which strengthens bones and muscles. In both men and women, research has shown, sex also seems to prompt the release of substances that bolster the immune system.

And people who have lots of sex, Ellison says, tend to eat better and exercise more.

But three times a week may not be optimal for everyone, she says. People who are healthier and feel younger, for instance, may want more frequent sex.

Plus, she adds, sex means different things to different people.

To Weeks, sex and orgasms are one and the same. In his study, the researchers assumed that people who said they had sex three times a week also had orgasms three times a week.

"Sex is the most pleasurable activity people take part in, and because the orgasm is the most pleasurable of that, it's hard to separate it out," Weeks says. "It's hard to say if it accounts for 50 percent or 75 percent" of the beneficial effects.

Does sex = orgasm?

But Ellison believes good sex can take many forms.

"We're caught up in this idea that sex equals orgasm," Ellison says. "You don't have to put on a performance when you have sex. You don't even have to have intercourse."

Preoccupation with orgasm, especially among women, can make them feel like a failure in bed when it doesn't happen, she says.

"The key is not, 'How am I doing? Am I getting turned on fast enough? Is this going to happen?' " she says. "The key is, 'Am I enjoying what is happening at this moment?' "

How often those moments occur seems to depend on where in the world you live.

Americans had the most sex in 1999, according to a recent survey of 18,000 men and women between 16 and 25 years of age conducted by SSL International, the British manufacturer of Durex condoms.

The worldwide average was 96 times a year, but Americans claimed to have had sex 132 times a year, followed by the Russians (122), French (121) and Greeks (115). Young Japanese made love the least often (32 times a year), the survey says.

Americans also seem to be getting a head start on people from other countries, reporting the earliest average age at which they started having sex. Americans lost their virginity at an average age of 16.4 years, followed by Brazilians at age 16.5 and the French at 16.8, the survey says.

The French had the most sexual partners, claiming an average of 16.7 each. Greeks were second with 15 partners each, followed by Brazilians with 12.5 and Americans with 11.8. Residents of India were the most faithful to their partners, with 82 percent saying they had sex with just one person.

But Bartlik says it's best to take the survey with a grain of salt. Researching sexual behavior is difficult, she says, because it's hard to get truthful answers. Some people inflate their answers on purpose, and for many questions it's difficult to give precise responses unless you've kept a weekly chart of sexual activity, she says.

"Perception is everything," Bartlik says. "Just look at the Woody Allen movie [Annie Hall]. He says, 'We never have sex.' She says, 'We're having sex all the time.' "

For information on other recent studies on sexuality, check out the Web site of the Kinsey Institute.


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La luce è in grado d'influenzare direttamente le capacità di apprendimento e di disturbare l'umore agendo su specifiche cellule della retina, le cellule gangliari. Lo hanno dimostrato Tara A. LeGates del Dipartimento di Biologia della Johns Hopkins University a Baltimore, nel Maryland, e colleghi di un'ampia collaborazione internazionale, che firmano in proposito un articolo sulla rivista "Nature".

E' un fatto acquisito che le variazioni di luce possono alterare negativamente l'umore e sulle funzioni cognitive: per esempio, l'esigua durata del giorno durante l'inverno, particolarmente evidente nei paesi del Nord, può portare a sindromi depressivi. Si è verificato sperimentalmente, inoltre, che studiare in condizioni di luce diurna è più proficuo che studiare di notte alla luce di una lampada.

Tuttavia, finora non si conoscevano i circuiti neuronali attraverso i quali si esplica questa influenza delle condizioni di luce, né era chiara la funzione di tali circuiti. L'ipotesi prevalente era che le variazioni dell'esposizione al sole alterassero i ritmi circadiani (i processi che controllano il nostro “orologio biologico” con ciclo di 24 ore). Un altro fattore indiretto sulla funzionalità del cervello, finora ritenuto cruciale, era la deprivazione del sonno.

Per verificare queste ipotesi, LeGates e colleghi hanno sottoposto alcuni topi di laboratorio a un ciclo di luce/buio aberrante definito ultradiano (3,5 ore di luce seguite da 3,5 di oscurità, quindi evitando di far prevalere l'esposizione alla luce o viceversa all'oscurità) verificando che non avesse effetti né sul ritmo del sonno né sui ritmi circadiani. L'isolamento dei diversi fattori implicati ha consentito di dimostrare che la luce regola direttamente i comportamenti collegati all'umore e alle funzioni cognitive.

Gli animali hanno mostrato infatti un incremento dei comportamenti di tipo depressivo e chiari deficit di apprendimento. In particolare, i risultati della sperimentazione dimostrano che i problemi di umore precedono quelli di apprendimento, dal momento che la somministrazione dei farmaci antidepressivi fluoxetina e o desipramina ha consentito di ristabilire i corretti ritmi di apprendimento e di sonno nei topi esposti al ciclo di luce/buio aberrante.

Con un secondo test, i ricercatori hanno individuato anche la via neuronale che media questa processo: si tratta delle cellule gangliari retinali fotosensibili. I topi mancanti di queste specifiche cellule della retina, infatti, non hanno manifestato alcun deficit di apprendimento né alterazioni nell'umore.


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Negocierile, esec total: “orice împrumut nou este exclus!”

Guvernul pastreaza o tacere mormântala despre vizita FMI de saptamâna trecuta. De ce? Simplu, pentru ca au dat-o-n bara. Discutiile au fost foarte dure, iar premierul Victor Ponta efectiv a fost palmuit.

La negocieri, Ponta a cerut doua lucruri:

  • Înca 10 miliarde de euro, de urgenta (in contul celebrei “centuri de siguranta”).
  • Daca nu, macar un nou acord formal cu FMI, pentru ca România sa se poata împrumuta in continuare de la banci.

Raspunsul FMI:

  • N-ati respectat nimic din ce ati semnat pana acum.
  • Companiile de stat falimentare NU au fost închise, ba chiar dau salarii mai mari ca privatii.
  • Numarul bugetarilor NU a fost redus. N-ati dat pe nimeni afara! Ati crezut ca ne pacaliti reducând posturile neocupate si pensionând câtiva fraieri.
  • Evaziunea fiscala NU a fost redusa, din contra, a explodat.
  • Deci orice nou împrumut este exclus.
  • Deci orice nou acord este exclus.

Adica... muie.

Ponta s-a speriat!

Marele socialist Victor Ponta stie si el ca fara FMI e mort. La propriu: adica nu mai sunt bani de pensii si salarii si îl linseaza oamenii. Si culmea, exact aia care l-au votat: pensionarii, bugetarii, asistatii social. Adica cersetorii.

Asa ca a cerut FMI-ului un ragaz: va rog sa nu anuntati ruperea relatiilor, înca! Dati-ne doua luni de proba si va promit ca o sa facem ce nu s-a facut in 20 de ani.

Delegatia FMI a izbucnit in ras: nu zau?! Hai sa va vedem!

Ce face acum guvernul?

In clipa asta, Ponta e disperat.

  • Evaziunea fiscala, stie ca n-are nici o sansa s-o reduca.
  • Reforma n-are de gând sa faca. Pentru ca reforma înseamna de fapt distrugerea statului social, pe care l-au muls toate partidele timp de 20 de ani. Fara stat pe care sa-l fure, adio contracte cu Hidroelectrica, adio verisoare angajate in ministere, adio deplasari in strainatate, adio tot! Daca se privatizeaza statul, clasa politica moare in doua saptamâni.
  • Singurul lucru pe care o sa-l faca, este sa mareasca taxele, in speranta ca vor creste veniturile statului. Dar stie si el ca economia româneasca e ca o vaca costeliva si bolnava: ce sa mai mulgi la ea?

De ce a cerut atunci doua luni? Pentru ca spera ca in astea doua luni sa gaseasca praf de aruncat in ochii FMI. Adica sa le dea iar vorbe goale in loc de fapte, si sa primeasca in schimb bani (exact cum a facut si Boc). Iar daca n-o sa reuseasca sa-i pacaleasca, in astea doua luni macar sa se împrumute cat mai poate de la bancile private.

  • De aceea l-a trimis de urgenta pe Daniel Chitoiu, ministrul Economiei, sa declare ca 120.000 de bugetari vor fi concediati.
  • De aceea l-a trimis si pe Constantin Nita, ministrul Energiei, sa declare ca companiile de stat falimentare (minerit, CFR, TAROM, Oltchim etc.) vor fi in fine închise.

Evident, nu vrea sa faca nici una, nici alta: pai in companiile alea freaca menta 600.000 de cersetori! Plus 120.000 de bugetari!

Pentru Victor Ponta, nu se mai pune problema sa-si termine mandatul: ci sa scape cu viata.

De câti bani are nevoie Ponta?

10 miliarde la pensii + 8 miliarde salarii bugetari + 16 miliarde ajutoare sociale si alte pomeni. In total 34 de miliarde de euro (nu lei!). Sursa: bugetul pe 2013.

Plus spagile pentru activistii USL, ca altfel îl debarca ca pe Razvan Ungureanu (pai ei de ce s-au zbatut sa câstige alegerile?). Asta e mai greu de estimat, dar in buget am vazut ca Guvernul si-a rezervat cam 14 miliarde de euro pentru contracte de stat, din care va fura minim 50%.

Deci, USL-istii se asteapta sa manânce si gura lor, macar 7 miliarde de euro. Pai e nasol, bai Ponta! N-ai nici o sansa!

“You can’t talk your way out of this!”

Ce înseamna asta? E o expresia americana. In traducere aproximativa: nu poti sa ne duci cu vorba. Ce legatura are cu acest articol despre FMI?

Hehehe... las’ ca stie Ponta legatura...

Ce se va întâmpla de fapt?

Stim cu totii:

FMI nu va mai da nici un ban României.

Bani de la banci, s-ar putea sa mai gaseasca in astea doua luni. Dar sunt ultimii! Si la ce foame are statul român, n-o sa-i ajunga pana la sfârsitul anului 2013.

In concluzie: comunistilor, ati intrat in anul mortii!

Sursa: - Autor: Mihai Giurgea

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By Admins (from 31/01/2013 @ 02:09:38, in it - Scienze e Societa, read 307 times)

Mohandas Karamchard Gandhi, detto il Mahatma (in sanscrito significa Grande Anima, soprannome datogli dal poeta indiano R. Tagore), è il fondatore della nonviolenza e il padre dell'indipendenza indiana.

Il nome Gandhi in lingua indiana significa 'droghiere': la sua famiglia dovette esercitare per un breve periodo un piccolo commercio di spezie.

Nato il 2 ottobre 1869 a Portbandar in India, dopo aver studiato nelle università di Ahmrdabad e Londra ed essersi laureato in giurisprudenza, esercita brevemente l'avvocatura a Bombay.

Di origini benestanti, nelle ultime generazioni la sua famiglia ricoprì alcune cariche importanti nelle corti del Kathiawar, tanto che il padre Mohandas Kaba Gandhi era stato primo ministro del principe Rajkot. I Gandhi tradizionalmente erano di religione Vaishnava; appartenevano cioè ad una setta Hindù con particolare devozione per Vishnù.

Nel 1893 si reca in Sud Africa con l'incarico di consulente legale per una ditta indiana: vi rimarrà per ventuno anni. Qui si scontra con una realtà terribile, in cui migliaia di immigrati indiani sono vittime della segregazione razziale. L'indignazione per le discriminazioni razziali subite dai suoi connazionali (e da lui stesso) da parte delle autorità britanniche, lo spingono alla lotta politica.

Il Mahatma si batte per il riconoscimento dei diritti dei suoi compatrioti e dal 1906 lancia, a livello di massa, il suo metodo di lotta basato sulla resistenza nonviolenta, denominato anche Satyagraha: una forma di non-collaborazione radicale con il governo britannico, concepita come mezzo di pressione di massa.

Gandhi giunge all'uguaglianza sociale e politica tramite le ribellioni pacifiche e le marce.

Alla fine il governo sudafricano attua importanti riforme a favore dei lavoratori indiani: eliminazione di parte delle vecchie leggi discriminatorie, riconoscimento ai nuovi immigrati della parità dei diritti e validità dei matrimoni religiosi.

Nel 1915 Gandhi torna in India dove circolano già da tempo fermenti di ribellione contro l'arroganza del dominio britannico, in particolare per la nuova legislazione agraria, che prevedeva il sequestro delle terre ai contadini in caso di scarso o mancato raccolto, e per la crisi dell'artigianato.

Diventa il leader del Partito del Congresso, partito che si batte per la liberazione dal colonialismo britannico.

Nel 1919 prende il via la prima grande campagna satyagraha di disobbedienza civile, che prevede il boicottaggio delle merci inglesi e il non-pagamento delle imposte. Il Mahatma subisce un processo ed è arrestato. Viene tenuto in carcere pochi mesi, ma una volta uscito riprende la sua battaglia con altri satyagraha. Nuovamente incarcerato e poi rilasciato, Gandhi partecipa alla Conferenza di Londra sul problema indiano, chiedendo l'indipendenza del suo paese.

Del 1930 è la terza campagna di resistenza. Organizza la marcia del sale: disobbedienza contro la tassa sul sale, la più iniqua perché colpiva soprattutto le classi povere. La campagna si allarga con il boicottaggio dei tessuti provenienti dall'estero. Gli inglesi arrestano Gandhi, sua moglie e altre 50.000 persone. Spesso incarcerato anche negli anni successivi, la "Grande Anima" risponde agli arresti con lunghissimi scioperi della fame (importante è quello che egli intraprende per richiamare l'attenzione sul problema della condizione degli intoccabili, la casta più bassa della società indiana).

All'inizio della Seconda Guerra Mondiale Gandhi decide di non sostenere l'Inghilterra se questa non garantirà all'India l'indipendenza. Il governo britannico reagisce con l'arresto di oltre 60.000 oppositori e dello stesso Mahatma, che è rilasciato dopo due anni.
Il 15 agosto 1947 l'India conquista l'indipendenza. Gandhi vive questo momento con dolore, pregando e digiunando. Il subcontinente indiano è diviso in due stati, India e Pakistan, la cui creazione sancisce la separazione fra indù e musulmani e culmina in una violenta guerra civile che costa, alla fine del 1947, quasi un milione di morti e sei milioni di profughi.

L'atteggiamento moderato di Gandhi sul problema della divisione del paese suscita l'odio di un fanatico indù che lo uccide il 30 gennaio 1948, durante un incontro di preghiera.

Fonte: via

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By Admins (from 30/01/2013 @ 05:08:16, in en - Science and Society, read 343 times)

Tick Removal: A nurse discovered a safe, easy way to remove ticks where they automatically withdraw themselves when you follow her simple instructions. "I had a pediatrician tell me what she believes is the best way to remove a tick. "

Apply a glob of liquid soap to a cotton ball. Cover the tickwith the soap-soaked cotton ball and swab it for a few seconds (15-20); the tick will come out on its own and be stuck to the cotton ball when you lift it away. Please pass on.

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Here we glimpse some of the potentials for the unabated and bizarre proliferation of GMOs. Some of these developments you will already know about (hopefully), but some will come as a surprise. As I see it we are now at a crossroads where we can still dismantle this dangerous and perverted manipulation of the very fabric of life, the sacred code of nature, which will undoubtedly affect each and every one of us in profound ways now and in the future.

Here we are reminded that the fight against GMOs and to save organics is not just a battle for what we knew yesterday, which is bad enough. It is a fight against the future of the GE movement and the unlikely and increasingly creepy, scary, and deranged turns it will likely take. Just today I read elsewhere that 35 species of fish, in addition to salmon, are slotted to be genetically engineered for various traits. I am not going to preview the highlights of what is below, but maybe you too will be left wondering, “What will they think of next?”

I hope we never have to find out. We have to stop this now before we and future generations have to be genetically engineered, RoundUp and 2,4-D Ready at the least perhaps, to withstand the onslaught of the weird stuff being channelled into our food supply and into our environment. If you haven’t already, perhaps after reading this article you will be more ready to take a real stand against GMOs by enacting the 11 Simple Steps to Eradicate GMOs and join our GMO Eradication Movement. Now put down that bowl of GMO corn chowder, buckle your seatbelts, clear you ears and clean off your eyeglasses for the list of 20 GMOs coming soon and already arrived to supermarket shelves near you.
Good luck distinguishing these Frankenfoods from real, natural food as they flood our supermarkets.

Genetically altered to withstand heavy applications of toxic chemicals, resist disease or contain more nutrients, so-called “Frankenfoods” are appearing on supermarket shelves at a rapid rate. Currently, genetically modified (GM) corn and soy can be found in many processed foods, and the produce section may contain GM zucchini, corn on the cob and papaya. But beyond those that have already been approved for human consumption, many more GMOs are on the way – and they probably won’t be labeled. These 20 crops and animal products include both those that are already available (whether we like it or not) and some that are still in development, like cows that produce human breast milk.


If you eat any kind of processed food on a regular basis – tortilla chips, cereal, granola bars – chances are, you consume genetically modified corn. The Center for Food Safety estimates that over 70% of the processed foods in American grocery stores contain genetically modified corn or soy. Corn is altered to contain proteins that kill insects that eat them, so they effectively produce their own pesticides.


Rice plants are often modified to be resistant to herbicides and pests, to increase grain size and to generate nutrients that don’t exist in the grain naturally. Varieties include Bayer’s herbicide-resistant “LibertyLink” rice, vitamin A-infused “golden rice” and the bizarre Ventria Bioscience “Express Tec” rice, which has been altered to contain human proteins naturally found in breast milk. The latter is used globally in infant formula.


Among the first foods to be genetically altered, GM tomatoes have been developed to be unnaturally high in anti-oxidants, to have more intense flavor and to stay fresh longer. While there are not currently any genetically modified tomatoes on store shelves, they’re being used extensively by scientists to study the function of genes that are naturally present in the plants.


The most common genetically engineered food of all is the soybean. Since 1996, scientists have been creating varieties of soybeans that are resistant to both pests and herbicides, and they wind up in places you’d least expect them, like candy bars. A new GM soybean with higher levels of healthy oils was approved by the USDA in 2010; chemical companies DuPont and Monsanto are both working on their own versions of the biotech bean.


We don’t think of cotton as a food, and technically it isn’t – but we still end up eating it. Cotton isn’t classified as a food crop, so farmers can use any chemicals they want when growing it. That means cottonseed oil, which is present in products like mayonnaise and salad dressing, can be packed full of pesticides. Along with soy, corn and canola, cotton grown for oil extraction is one of the most frequently genetically modified crops in the world.

Canola Oil

Canola, a cultivar of rapeseed, produces one of the most commonly consumed food oils, and it’s one of America’s biggest cash crops. What you may not know is that canola stands for “Canadian oil, low acid,” referring to a variety of rapeseed developed in the 1970s. 80% of the acres of canola sown in the U.S. are genetically modified, and a 2010 study in North Dakota found that the modified genes of these plants have spread to 80% of wild natural rapeseed plants.

Sugar Beets

Despite the fact that an environmental impact study has yet to be completed, the USDA has announced that farmers may now plant Monsanto’s Roundup Ready sugar beets, which have been altered to withstand the company’s herbicide. This decision comes despite a 2010 court order that prohibited planting the GMO beets until the study was performed. Sugar beets provide about half of America’s sugar.


Salmon may become the first genetically modified animal to be approved for direct human consumption. The FDA has decided that a variety of GM salmon that grow twice as fast as their natural, un-modified peers is both safe to eat and safe for the environment.

“We’re looking here at a scenario where the fish might wind up sooner or later in the ocean,” Brian Ellis, plant biotechnologist at the University of British Columbia Vancouver, told Discovery News. “I think if we go down this route, we have to be prepared to accept some potentially unknown consequences.”

Sugar Cane

Providing the other half of America’s precious sugar, sugar cane is set to debut on our shelves in genetically modified form sometime soon. Brazil’s state-owned agricultural research agency has been hard at work developing drought-resistant sugar cane that also bears increased yields for years now, and may have it certified for commercial use within five years. Australia is also working on its own version.


After the Ringspot Virus nearly destroyed all of Hawaii’s papaya crops, a new variety was engineered to resist the disease, and it now represents the majority of the papayas grown in the United States.

“Papaya would be unique in the sense where the industry in Hawaii is dependent on biotech,” says Kevin Richards, director of regulatory relations for the American Farm Bureau. “What you have in Hawaii is a very contained, isolated agro-eco system, which is vulnerable to diseases.”


The first genetically modified food to be approved for cultivation in Europe in over a decade, Amflora potatoes are currently being grown in Sweden. High in starch content, the potatoes are actually meant for use in paper, glues and other commercial products rather than as food, but that doesn’t mean they won’t end up affecting the food chain. Nearby farmers worry about their rabbits, deer, and especially their bees.


Could genetically modified crops have something to do with the mysterious ailments that are killing honeybee colonies by the billions? Some researchers believe so. A zoologist in Germany found that genes used to modify rapeseed crops had transferred to bacteria living inside bees. GMOs are currently considered to be among the possible causes of Colony Collapse Disorder. And if the genes are causing changes within the bees, they’re also likely to cause changes to the honey that the bees produce.


After banana crops in Uganda were affected by a bacterial disease that caused the plants to rot, scientists developed a genetically modified variety that could help alleviate the $500 million annual loss. The ban on GM crops was waived to make way for the GM version of Uganda’s staple food. A gene from sweet pepper was inserted into the bananas that make them resistant to the bacteria. Cultivated bananas have almost no genetic diversity, so supporters of this decision argue that introducing the GMO fruits will actually help bananas as a whole.
Sources: & via &

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The announcement, from the Church's House of Bishops, would allow gay clergy to become bishops if they promise to be celibate.

Conservative evangelical Anglicans say they will fight the move in the Church's ruling general synod.

The issue has split the church since 2003 amid a row over gay cleric Jeffrey John becoming Bishop of Reading.

Mr John, now Dean of St Albans, was forced to step down from the role after protests from traditionalists.

He was also a candidate for Bishop of Southwark in 2010 but was rejected. Evidence emerged that this was because of his sexual orientation.

The Church of England has already agreed to allow people in civil partnerships to become clergy, provided they promised they would remain celibate, and repent for active homosexuality in the past.

In July last year, the House of Bishops (HoB) said it would review this decision, made in 2005, to decide whether it could also relate to bishops.

In the list of decisions at its latest meeting in December, it has now confirmed that those conditions could now extend to bishops.

This amounts to a lifting of the moratorium on the appointment of clergy in civil partnerships as bishops, the Church Times said.

Fiercely resisted

The Rt Revd Graham James, Bishop of Norwich, said on behalf of the HoB it would be "unjust" to exclude anyone for consideration for the role of bishop who was "seeking to live fully in conformity with the Church's teaching on sexual ethics or other areas of personal life and discipline".

He said: "All candidates for the episcopate undergo a searching examination of personal and family circumstances, given the level of public scrutiny associated with being a bishop in the Church of England.

"But these, along with the candidate's suitability for any particular role for which he is being considered, are for those responsible for the selection process to consider in each case."

BBC religious affairs correspondent Robert Pigott said given the tension surrounding the issue of sexuality, the Church's decision to allow men in civil partnerships to become bishops represented a major concession and one with considerable symbolic significance.

Evangelicals have warned they would be willing to bring in bishops from overseas to avoid serving under a gay bishop.

Rod Thomas, chairman of the evangelical group Reform, said the idea of appointing people in civil partnerships as bishops had not been agreed or debated by the wider Church.

"That would be a major change in church doctrine and therefore not something that can be slipped out in the news, it is something that has got to be considered by the General Synod."

He said there would be great divisions in the church if clergy in a civil partnership were appointed as a bishop.

Worldwide, anger over the appointment of actively gay men and women as bishops, especially in the US, has actuated the conservative Gafcon movement, through which conservative Anglican provinces in Africa and elsewhere have begun to function independently of the official Anglican Communion.

Gafcon has condemned those who preach a "false gospel" which "claims God's blessing for same-sex unions over against the biblical teaching on holy matrimony".


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right on!!
12/07/2014 @ 20:07:45
By Brian Barton
Cannabis is the best medicine in nature. Best everything. But shit, thc is important to!
10/07/2014 @ 13:26:01
By Jason Bond
06/07/2014 @ 02:59:37
By Altan
Thanks I was just looking for a recipe - gotta love the way the Spirit moves
04/07/2014 @ 19:06:54
By Ginamarie Pezzi
unfortunately that is a reality these days - we humans - especially in the west - only want to hear "a" truth that fits our own limited perspective rather than one that is open & is truth in many ...
04/07/2014 @ 18:57:31
By Ginamarie Pezzi
03/07/2014 @ 08:48:35
By Anna Forte
Mmmmm candy
02/07/2014 @ 12:26:50
By Drizzy Dre


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